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Publications Book Chapters Coastal Landscapes and their Relationship to Human Settlement on the Georgia Coast
Abstract - Local geomorphology and geology are important to understanding human settlement patterns (Rossignol, 1992; Stafford, 1995, 2004; Dodonov, A.W. Kandel, A.N. Simakova, et al., 2007). The geomorphology of a landscape reveals when elements of the landscape initially formed, the processes involved in their formation, and the processes involved in subsequent landscape changes over time. Understanding these factors allows for a better interpretation of the archaeological record. Ideally, the analysis of the archaeological record should be separate from the geomorphology, but they are sometimes so intertwined that it is necessary to analyze them simultaneously. This is especially true in dynamic coastal settings, where environmental changes can occur yearly, seasonally, and even daily (Wells, 2001; also see Jordan and Maschner, 2000; Peros, Graham, and Davis, 2006; Dickinson and Burley, 2007; Bicho and Haws, 2008; Pollard, 2009; Erlandson and Braje, 2011).To refine our understanding of Georgia coastal evolution, a campaign of vibracoring, dating (radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence), and sediment analyses were performed in four diverse intertidal settings: back-barrier, nondeltaic interbarrier, deltaic interbarrier, and southern end barrier/recurved spit. The results were then compared to the archaeological records of these areas, noting the implication of landscape history for settlement patterns, as well as how archaeology can speak to geomorphological studies.
(contributed by John A. Turck, 2013)
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    South Atlantic Tidal Wetlands
Abstract - (none)
(contributed by Steven C. Pennings, 2012)
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    Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems and Their Services
Abstract - The global decline in estuarine and coastal ecosystems (ECEs) is affecting a number of critical benefits, or ecosystem services. We review the main ecological functions and their services across a variety of ECEs, including marshes, mangroves, nearshore coral reefs, seagrass beds, and sand beaches and dunes. We cite estimates of the key economic values arising from these services, and discuss how the natural variability of ECE impacts their benefits, the synergistic relationships of ECE across seascapes, and the management implications.
(contributed by Edward B. Barbier, 2011)
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    Tidal marsh creation
Abstract - (none)
(contributed by S. W. Broome, 2009)
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    Biogeochemical dynamics of coastal tidal flats
Abstract - (none)
(contributed by Samantha B. Joye, 2009)
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    Top-down control and human intensification of consumer pressure in southern U.S. salt marshes
Abstract - (none)
(contributed by Brian R. Silliman, 2009)
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    Nitrogen Cycling in Estuarine and Nearshore Sediments
Abstract - (none)
(contributed by Samantha B. Joye, 2008)
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  Books Coastal Landscapes and their Relationship to Human Settlement on the Georgia Coast
Abstract - Although this volume covers a broad range of temporal and methodological topics, the chapters are unified by a geographic focus on the archaeology of the Georgia Bight. The various research projects span multiple time periods (including Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian, and contact periods) and many incorporate specialized analyses (such as petrographic point counting, shallow geophysics, and so forth). The 26 contributors conducting this cutting-edge work represent the full spectrum of the archaeological community, including museum, academic, student, and contract archaeologists. Despite the diversity in professional and theoretical backgrounds, temporal periods examined, and methodological approaches pursued, the volume is unified by four distinct, yet interrelated, themes. Contributions in Part I discuss a range of analytical approaches for understanding time, exchange, and site layout. Chapters in Part II model coastal landscapes from both environmental and social perspectives. The third section addresses site-specific studies of late prehistoric architecture and village layout throughout the Georgia Bight. Part IV presents new and ongoing research into the Spanish mission period of this area. These papers were initially presented and discussed at the Sixth Caldwell Conference, cosponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and the St. Catherines Island Foundation, held on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, May 20-22, 2011. TABLE OF CONTENTS: Revising the ¹⁴C reservoir correction for St. Catherines Island, Georgia / David Hurst Thomas, Matthew C. Sanger, and Royce H. Hayes -- An assessment of coastal faunal data from Georgia and northeast Florida / Alexandra L. Parsons and Rochelle A. Marrinan -- Archaeological geophysics on St. Catherines Island : beyond prospection / Ginessa J. Mahar -- Paste variability and clay resource utilization at the Fountain of Youth site, St. Augustine, 8SJ31 / Ann S. Cordell and Kathleen A. Deagan -- Petrographic analysis of pottery and clay samples from the Georgia Bight : evidence of regional social interactions / Neill J. Wallis and Ann S. Cordell -- Past shorelines of the Georgia coast / Chester B. DePratter and Victor D. Thompson -- Coastal landscapes and their relationship to human settlement on the Georgia coast / John A. Turck and Clark R. Alexander -- The role of small islands in foraging economies of St. Catherines Island / Matthew F. Napolitano -- Ever-shifting landscapes : tracking changing spatial usage along coastal Georgia / Matthew C. Sanger -- A paleoeconomic model of the Georgia coast (4500-300 B.P.) / Thomas G. Whitley -- A survey of Irene phase architecture on the Georgia coast / Deborah A. Keene and Ervan G. Garrison -- Life and death on the Ogeechee : a view from the Redbird Creek village / Ryan O. Sipe -- Mission San Joseph de Sapala : mission-period archaeological research on Sapelo Island / Richard W. Jefferies and Christopher R. Moore -- The Guale landscape of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale : 30 years of geophysics at a Spanish colonial mission / Elliot H. Blair -- Missions San Buenaventura and Santa Cruz de Guadalquini : retreat from the Georgia coast / Keith H. Ashley, Vicki L. Rolland, and Robert L. Thunen -- Entangling events : the Guale coastal landscape and the Spanish missions / Victor D. Thompson, John A. Turck, Amanda D. Roberts Thompson, and Chester B. DePratter -- Island and coastal archaeology on the Georgia Bight / Scott M. Fitzpatrick.
(contributed by Victor D. Thompson, 2013)
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    Handbook for LTER Education, First Edition
Abstract - This handbook is presented as a brief guidebook for those interested in the education programs and activities of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network. The handbook is not intended to be exhaustive, but simply to give the reader an overview of LTER education efforts and to share some frameworks, materials, and best practices that have been developed and tested at LTER sites. The six chapters and eight appendices provide strategies and resources from current programs to design and develop a new program, collaborate with other sites, and to provide ideas for program expansion. Each chapter contains key references related to program design, development, implementation, and evaluation. It is important to note that each LTER site is unique and often requires site-specific plans for maximizing outreach efforts; however, all sites share the overall goals of the Schoolyard LTER (SLTER) and have several common approaches. Sharing frameworks and best practices facilitates the collaborative development and testing of the Schoolyard LTER (SLTER) as a model for the integration of ecology research and education. We encourage you to spend time reading the collection of documents on the LTER webpages that are related to education. Much of the information in this chapter can be found in detail in those documents.
(contributed by S. Bestelmeyer, 2005)
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  Conference Papers A Coastal Water Quality Metadata Database for the Southeast U.S.A.
Abstract - This paper describes the development and initial implementation of a Coastal Water Quality Monitoring Metadata Database for the Southeast region (from NC to FL), which was developed with funding from the National Park Service. The database was designed to store detailed information on water quality monitoring programs operated by federal, state and municipal agencies, as well as by research institutions, including monitoring station locations, measured parameters, program contacts, and links to program web pages and data downloads. Water quality parameter records are classified into parameter groups and categories to support searches at varying levels of specificity, and are matched to US EPA STORET codes when possible for interoperability with federal databases. Fields for defining sample media, units and methodology are also provided for additional context. A prototype web portal, web services and mapping services were developed to support search and display of database contents, and to support leveraging by other database and portal efforts. Information from 41 monitoring programs in the South Atlantic was initially loaded into the database in 2009, including metadata on 16,182 stations at which 1093 distinct parameters are measured; the number of programs is currently being expanded. This database provides an ongoing inventory of monitoring activities for the southeast region and will help to facilitate identification of data gaps or under- or over-sampled areas. On a broader scale, the project’s water quality metadata database and web portal have timely relevance to the broad community of coastal managers, researchers, planners and constituents as they make significant progress in leveraging and focusing regional associations and partnerships.
(contributed by Wade M. Sheldon, 2011)
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    Dynamic, Rule-based Quality Control Framework for Real-time Sensor Data
Abstract - The volume of monitoring data that can be acquired and managed by Long Term Ecological Research sites and environmental observatories has increased exponentially over time, thanks to advances in sensor technology and computing power combined with steady decreases in data storage costs. New directions in environmental monitoring, such as sensor networks and instrumented platforms with real-time data telemetry, are raising the bar even higher. Quality control is often a major challenge with real-time data, though, due to poor scalability of traditional software tools, approaches and analysis methods. Software developed at the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Long Term Ecological Research Site (GCE Data Toolbox for MATLAB) has proven very effective for quality control of both real-time and legacy data, as well as interactive analysis during post processing and synthesis. This paper describes the design and operation of the dynamic, rule-based quality control framework provided by this software, and presents quantitative performance data that demonstrate these tools can efficiently perform quality analysis on million-record data sets using commodity computer hardware.
(contributed by Wade M. Sheldon, 2008)
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    Coastal Watershed Condition Assessment of Fort Pulaski National Monument
Abstract - We recently completed an assessment of Fort Pulaski National Monument for the Water Resources Division of the National Park Service. The report provides information on park resources, water quality and impairments, and other issues of concern. Although there are no real sources of pollutants at Fort Pulaski itself, both point and nonpoint sources of pollutants can be found nearby that have the potential to affect its water resources. We identified nutrients and contaminants as currently existing problems. A majority of nutrient samples were classified as either fair or poor, and there is evidence for elevated contaminants (primarily arsenic and PAHs) in sediment and animal tissue taken from both tidal creeks and the main channel of the Savannah River. Dissolved oxygen was identified as a potential problem due to the amount of organic material and nutrients associated with industrial activity. Fecal bacteria concentrations are low and not considered a problem. Continued water quality monitoring at the Park is particularly important in order to note any change occurring with the Savannah Harbor Expansion Project. The report provides a list of recommendations for additional observations that would allow us to better evaluate coastal water resources.
(contributed by Caroline R. McFarlin, 2007)
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    ClimDB/HydroDB: A web harvester and data warehouse approach to building a cross-site climate and hydrology database
Abstract - Emerging environmental grand challenges demand new scientific approaches that require collaboration and integration of long-term, multi-site data across broad spatial and temporal scales. The LTER Network and USFS Experimental Forest Network sites collect extensive long-term ecological, climatological, and hydrological data. While many of the LTER and USFS databases are available on-line with adequate metadata, researchers find it problematic to locate, access, and assemble data from multiple sites. LTER and USFS Information Managers developed ClimDB/HydroDB (http://www.fsl.orst.edu/climhy/) as one approach to improving access to crosssite data. As information systems at LTER and USFS are geographically decentralized and autonomous, this approach relied upon scientific interest, organizational and personal commitment, and participation incentives to build this integrated, cross-site information product. ClimDB/HydroDB is a web harvester and data warehouse that provides uniform access to common daily streamflow and meteorological data through a single portal. Participating sites manage and control original source data within their local information systems, but routinely contribute data to the warehouse. This approach establishes service development at the central node, permitting rapid adaptation to changing needs, while maintaining low-overhead and technological neutrality for data providers. The ClimDB/HydroDB approach is an effective bridge technology between older, more rigid data distribution models and modern service-oriented architectures.
(contributed by Donald L. Henshaw, 2006)
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    Comparing Transport Times Through Salinity Zones in the Ogeechee and Altamaha River Estuaries Using SqueezeBox
Abstract - This study explored differences in the transit times of dissolved substances through salinity zones in the Altamaha and Ogeechee River estuaries under a range of flow conditions. Salinity distributions and transit times were estimated from box models generated using the SqueezeBox modeling framework. The estuaries were compared in spite of the large difference in their river flow ranges by using flow rates ranging from the 10th-90th percentile within each range. In each case, zone lengths and transit times were calculated for the tidal freshwater, oligo-mesohaline, and polyhaline zones. Although the two estuaries have similar lengths, the slower-flowing Ogeechee grades from a zone of tidal freshwater (except at very low flows) through oligo-mesohaline zones to a polyhaline zone inside the mouth whereas the Altamaha always has a fairly long (>25 km) extent of tidal freshwater but only a short (or non-existent) polyhaline zone. Transit times through the whole Ogeechee estuary are 3.3-4.7 times longer than those in the Altamaha, but the lengths of time water spends in the tidal freshwater reaches of the estuaries are comparable whereas there are large differences in the times spent in oligo-mesohaline and polyhaline reaches. These types of predictions may be useful in interpreting nutrient and pollutant dynamics in estuaries as well as in studies that compare the relative susceptibility of estuaries to perturbations.
(contributed by Joan E. Sheldon, 2005)
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    Trends in agricultural sources of nitrogen in the Altamaha River watershed
Abstract - We compiled USDA Census of Agriculture data on livestock production and agricultural land use along with USGS estimates of fertilizer use to evaluate trends in agricultural sources of nitrogen (N) to the watershed of the Altamaha River. Between 1954 and 2002, the estimated contribution of N from the three major livestock crops (cattle, chickens, and pigs) remained fairly stable, averaging approximately 1,000 kg N/km2. However, the source of the waste shifted from primarily cattle in 1954 to a mix of cattle and chickens in 2002, due in large part to a ten-fold increase in the number of chickens in the watershed. We did not have fertilizer data through 2002, but between 1954 and 1991 estimated fertilizer N use doubled, from 503 to 1,055 kg N/km2 (calculated based on the area of the watershed). These changes in N sources were accompanied by decreases in the amount of cultivated land in the watershed. The amount of land classified as harvested cropland decreased from 6,528 in 1954 to 2,448 km2 in 1992, which suggests there has been an increase in the amount of fertilizer applied per unit area. The amount of pastureland showed an even larger decrease, from 11,421 in 1954 to 3,294 km2 in 2002, which we take as evidence of increased confinement of livestock. When these numbers are considered in the context of all of the sources of N to the watershed, we estimate that the proportion of agriculturalderived N accounted for approximately 66% of the N input to the watershed in 2000, with the remainder coming from human waste and atmospheric deposition.
(contributed by Sylvia C. Schaefer, 2005)
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235 Records
LTER
NSF

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE-9982133, OCE-0620959 and OCE-1237140. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.