Area 1: Drivers of Change

Description Objectives Outcomes Figures Projects Publications Data Sets Show All  

Overview

In order to understand the effects of external drivers such as climate change, sea level rise, and anthropogenic alterations of the landscape, we need to document their patterns over time and space. This is similar to Q1 from GCE-II, and much of the proposed work is a direct continuation of those efforts, but we are adding studies of land use change, shoreline modification, and Native American use of the area to enhance our understanding of the human drivers of change.

Our goals are to track long-term changes in climate (average conditions and extreme events like storms) and human actions (in the watershed and adjacent uplands), and to evaluate the effects of climate and human drivers on domain boundary conditions (riverine input, runoff and infiltration from adjacent uplands, sea surface height).

We collect long-term measurements of A) climate, water chemistry, oceanic exchange, and B) human activities on the landscape in order to document how boundary conditions that affect the domain vary over time.

Components

Area 1A: Climate and human drivers of change

In order to understand the effects of external drivers such as climate change, sea level rise, and anthro pogenic alterations of the landscape, we need to document their patterns over time and space. This is similar to Q1 from GCE-II, and much of the proposed work is a direct continuation of those efforts, but we are adding studies of land use change, shoreline modification, and Native American use of the area to enhance our understanding of the human drivers of change. Our goals are to track long-term changes in climate (average conditions and extreme events like storms) and human actions (in the wat ershed and adjacent uplands), and to evaluate the effects of climate and human drivers on domain boundary conditions (riverine input, runoff and infiltration from adjacent uplands, sea surface height).

Area 1B: Human activities on the landscape

To date, our consideration of human drivers has focused on nutrient inputs to the Altamaha watershed and land use change in the adjacent uplands (McIntosh Co.). For GCE-III, we propose to expand on these efforts by a) building on the Maps and Locals (MALS) project, b) documenting shoreline modification, and c) investig ating the effects of ancient human alterations. These studies will provide us with a deeper understanding of human drivers of change in our system

Research Objectives

  • 1A.1  Install and maintain an eddy covariance flux tower in the Duplin River (yr 1-6)
    • Description:  We are installing an eddy covariance flux tower with an LTER level 3 weather station in a Spartina-dominated marsh in the Duplin River to study fluxes of heat, water and carbon. A sonic anemometer and a closed-path gas analyzer (Li-7200) measure the 3D wind vector, air temperature, and concentrations of CO2 and H2O at 10-20 Hz. Soil heat fluxes are measured with heat flux plates, an averaging thermocouple and a soil water content reflectometer. Other instrumentation measures humidity, vertical temperature variations, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and marsh water level. Up- and downward looking radiative sensors measure shortwave (solar), long wave and photosynthetically active (PAR) radiation. A StarDot NetCam SC digital camera takes RGB and IR pictures every 30 min to get high frequency phenology data (Richardson et al. 2007). Use of the flux tower is discussed in Area 3A.
    • Participants:  Daniela Di Iorio, Monique Leclerc, Wade Sheldon
  • 1A.2  Collect ongoing information on climate and oceanographic conditions, sea level, and river discharge (yr 1-6)
    • Description:  Understanding how the boundary conditions that affect the GCE domain vary over time and are affected by climate and human drivers positions us to explain past dynamics of the system and predict its future. The GCE operates weather stations and collects data on the water chemistry of the Altamaha River (Table 1). We also obtain data from other organizations on river discharge, sea level, oceanographic conditions and weather (GCE data portal)
    • Participants:  Merryl Alber, Adrian Burd, Daniela Di Iorio, Adam Sapp, Wade Sheldon
  • 1A.3  Collect monthly samples of Altamaha River water entering the GCE domain, and analyze it for dissolved inorganic nutrients, DIC, alkalinity and pH (yr 1-6)
    • Description:  We are synthesizing 12 y of nutrient data from the main stem of the Altamaha and its 3 main tributaries. These data will serve as the basis for loading curves for inorganic (NO3, NH4, PO4) and organic (DOC, DON) nutrients to the domain and for characterizing differences among sub-watersheds. We hypothesize that the level of nutrient loading in each tributary is a function of nutrient inputs to the watershed, but that temporal dynamics are a function of streamflow. For GCE-III we will focus on the 10 main stem of the Altamaha, as it integrates tributary flows and represents the actual input to the estuary, and reduce the sampling frequency from weekly to monthly. However, we will expand our analyses to include measurements of DIC, alkalinity, and pH, and will also characterize DOM composition and source. These data will inform our C budget (Area 4), and allow us to track long-term changes in acidity.
    • Participants:  Merryl Alber, Wei-Jun Cai, Mandy Joye
  • 1A.4  Measure exchange between the estuaries and the coastal ocean (yr 2-4)
    • Description:  We will instrument the mouth of the Duplin River with a horizontal ADCP to track water exchange between the Duplin River and Doboy Sound. These high frequency measurements will provide calibration and validation data for the more detailed hydrodynamic model of the Duplin (Area 2).
    • Participants:  Renato Castelao, Daniela Di Iorio
  • 1A.5  Measure exchange between the Duplin River and Doboy Sound (yr 1-6)
    • Description:  We will deploy acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) with a vertical array of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensors at the mouths of the 3 Sounds and at the 10-m isobath during fall (low river discharge, downwelling favorable conditions) and spring (high river discharge, upwelling favorable conditions) to measure exchange with the coastal ocean. Cruises to deploy and retrieve these instruments (see UNOLS ship-time request) will also include synoptic sampling for nutrients and carbon constituents and measure the spatial extent of the Altamaha River plume in the coastal ocean. These focused studies will enable us to better characterize exchange between the GCE domain and the continental shelf, and will provide data needed to calibrate the hydrodynamic model (Area 2).
    • Participants:  Daniela Di Iorio
  • 1B.1  Conduct structured interviews of McIntosh County residents about environmental change (yr 1)
    • Description:  The Maps and Locals project has produced a detailed analysis of land use change in our domain (Runfola & Pontius in review). We are building on this, in partnership with Georgia Sea Grant. The "Listening Project", modeled after an ongoing project at the Coweeta LTER, involves semistructured interviews with coastal residents designed to elicit information on their experiences of land use change and how it has affected coastal habitats. These data will enhance our understanding of human perceptions of the causes and consequences of long-term change in the region.
    • Participants:  Merryl Alber, Nik Heynen
  • 1B.2  Evaluate market and non-market values of natural resources in McIntosh County (yr 1)
    • Description:  The ecosystem services project is evaluating market and non-market values of natural resources in McIntosh Co. (Fig. 9). These data will help us to determine how different development scenarios or predicted changes in habitat (Area 4) will affect ecosystem services such as C storage.
    • Participants:  Merryl Alber
  • 1B.3  Incorporate information on human activities into the GCE database (yr 1-6)
    • Description:  Several data sets are available that provide information on human modification of the shoreline within the GCE domain. These include GIS maps (Alexander) showing the locations of sea walls and other types of shoreline armoring (Fig. 9), and studies by the UGA Marine Extension Service of the locations and status of septic tanks in McIntosh Co. We also have historic and archaeological information on long-term changes in shoreline location due to changes in sea level and on shoreline accretion and erosion. We will incorporate these data sets into the GCE GIS. These coverages will inform experimental site selection (Area 3c) and scenario development (Area 4).
    • Participants:  Clark Alexander, Wade Sheldon, Victor Thompson
  • 1B.4  Assess changes in Native American economic systems over time and their impact on the coastal Georgia landscape (yr 1-4)
    • Description:  Humans have been living on and physically modifying the coastal landscape for over 5,000 y. Studies conducted in GCE-II suggest that humans increased the elevation of upland areas adjacent to some marshes by over 1 m by adding shell deposits (Thompson et al. in press), and that these deposits affected the composition of high marsh vegetation (Guo & Pennings in review). In GCE-III we will conduct core transects and use a combination of optically stimulated luminescence dates, radiocarbon dates, and relative dates from buried artifacts to evaluate both the timing of human occupation and formation of new marsh habitats, both of which will be useful for hindcasting “pre-development” scenarios (Area 4). We will also conduct surveys at archaeological shell test pits and investigate correlations between shell presence (and other drivers) and current marsh vegetation patterns. We hypothesize that human activities have a) modified the marsh/upland border, affecting the susceptibility of these areas to sea level rise, and b) modified the high marsh plant community.
    • Participants:  Victor Thompson

Research Outcomes by Objective

  • 1A.1  Install and maintain an eddy covariance flux tower in the Duplin River (yr 1-6)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  An eddy covariance flux tower was installed in the Duplin River in summer 2013. It has an open path infrared gas analyzer for CO2/H2O, a sonic anemometer, sensors for air temperature, humidity, PAR, total solar and long wave radiation, soil heat flux plates and soil thermocouples, a rain gauge, and a camera for phenology studies.

      Plans:  A pressure transducer to measure water levels in the creek adjacent to the flux tower will be installed by Fall 2013

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  GCE operates an eddy covariance tower in the Duplin River that measures CO2 and H2O fluxes along with atmospheric, soil and water properties. Since the wind patterns change seasonally, we added a 2nd LICOR unit facing the other direction. We also added a pressure transducer to measure water levels in the adjacent creek.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  GCE continues to operate an eddy covariance tower in the Duplin River that measures CO2 and H2O fluxes along with atmospheric, soil and water properties. We have established a data processing routine that involves signal processing (de-spiking, planar fit, detrending) and 30-minute averaging.

      Results:  The footprint of the flux tower varies with time of day and season. Our analyses show that 70% of the signal is from S. alterniflora-dominated areas of the salt marsh. (Results Fig. 1)

  • 1A.2  Collect ongoing information on climate and oceanographic conditions, sea level, and river discharge (yr 1-6)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  A series of meteorological stations are used to characterize the GCE domain (Fig. 1). The station at Marsh Landing, which is operated in collaboration with SINERR, serves as our primary LTER meteorological station for ClimDB. Referenced sea level data, offshore wind forcing, and river discharge are also tracked.

      Results:  Sheldon and Burd (2013) examined variability in freshwater delivery (precipitation and discharge) to the Altamaha River estuary in relation to indices for several climate signals and found complex, seasonally alternating patterns. Understanding how climate patterns affect precipitation and river discharge will help elucidate how the estuarine ecosystem may respond to climate changes.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  A series of meteorological stations are used to characterize the GCE domain (Fig. 1 ). The station at Marsh Landing serves as our primary station for ClimDB. This year we deployed a ceilometer (purchased with Supplemental equipment funds) and a sodar to evaluate boundary layer conditions as an aid to interpretation of flux tower data.

      Results:  Initial results from the ceilometer show complicated patterns of atmospheric mixing and how the boundary layer can be influenced by the presence of fog (Fig . 1), which may have implications for estimating surface CO2 flux.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  A series of meteorological stations are used to characterize the GCE domain (Activities Fig. 1). The station at Marsh Landing serves as our primary station for ClimDB. We continue to operate a ceilometer (purchased with Supplemental equipment funds) and a sodar to evaluate boundary layer conditions as an aid to interpretation of flux tower data.

      Results:  Ceilometer and sodar data were used to characterize nocturnal low-level jets. We have found that periods with low-level jets are associated with smaller jet speed, weaker turbulence, stronger atmospheric stability, and smaller turbulent kinetic energy and fluxes. These results are being written up for publication.

  • 1A.3  Collect monthly samples of Altamaha River water entering the GCE domain, and analyze it for dissolved inorganic nutrients, DIC, alkalinity and pH (yr 1-6)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We collect monthly samples of the river water entering the GCE domain via the Altamaha River for analysis of dissolved inorganic nutrients, DIC, alkalinity and pH

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We collect monthly samples of the river water entering the GCE domain via the Altamaha River for analysis of dissolved inorganic nutrients, DIC, alkalinity and pH.

      Results:  Schaefer (2014) evaluated N input and export in the 7 subwatersheds of the Altamaha River and found that cumulative upstream population density was an excellent predictor of both NO3 and total N concentrations and loads, and that there was little evidence for N processing during transit. Takagi et al. (submitted) analyzed long-term GCE observations of nutrients in the main tributaries and also found that dissolved inorganic N loads are driven by human population density. Taken together, these results suggest that N derived from human wastewater in the upper portion of the watershed is the primary contributor of in-stream N in the lower river.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We collect monthly samples of the river water entering the GCE domain via the Altamaha River for analysis of dissolved inorganic nutrients, DIC, alkalinity and pH.

  • 1A.4  Measure exchange between the estuaries and the coastal ocean (yr 2-4)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  Instruments are being prepared for deployment in year 2.5. Measure exchange between the Duplin River and Doboy Sound (yr 1-6)

      Plans:  Instruments and mooring equipment is being built or acquired in order to be ready for deployment in year 2. Permits for submerged moorings are also in preparation.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We carried out 3 research cruises on the RV Savannah during which we deployed acoustic Doppler current profilers with CTD sensors. The data from these moorings will be used to help understand exchange with the coastal ocean and to inform our hydrodynamic model of the region. We also sampled nutrients and C to characterize fluxes through the system.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  The GCE led 4 oceanographic cruises on the R/V Savannah in 2014, and also participated in an additional 3 cruises in the GCE domain (led by J.T. Hollibaugh for a separate NSF project). Instruments were deployed within each of the three sounds in the GCE domain and data are being used along with ship based measurements to provide information on along and cross shelf flows during each season. In addition, cruises involved measurements of inorganic C (pCO2, pH, DIC, and Total Alkalinity); organic carbon (DOC, POC, CDOM, C composition); nutrients (DIN); DNA; chlorophyll; and sediment (texture, composition). A final cruise is scheduled for 2016.

      Results:  Cruise observations provide information on seasonal salinity variability on the shelf (Activities Fig. 2)

  • 1A.5  Measure exchange between the Duplin River and Doboy Sound (yr 1-6)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We have acquired an H-ADCP to deploy at the mouth of the Duplin River.

      Plans:  The horizontal ADCP instrument needs to be mounted on a new piling along the Duplin with cabling to shore for power and data acquisition. We are currently scouting the area to identify a location that will not interfere with boating traffic near Marsh Landing.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We have had difficulty identifying a location for deployment of a horizontal ADCP that does not interfere with boat traffic.

      Plans:  We will survey the channel area near Marsh Landing to find an appropriate place to drive a new piling for the ADCP, and then proceed with permitting and deployment.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We have concluded that we cannot attach a horizontal ADCP to an existing structure as originally planned and will instead need to install a piling, which requires permits from both the State DNR and the USACE. However, we have started to evaluate exchange with the FVCOM model (see Objective 2C1).

      Plans:  We will proceed with permitting and deployment.

  • 1B.1  Conduct structured interviews of McIntosh County residents about environmental change (yr 1)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We conducted in depth interviews with 20 individuals who have resided in McIntosh County for a minimum of 10 yearsas part of the cross-site “maps and locals” project, supported by Sea Grant and the National Estuarine Research Reserve.

      Results:  The final report from this study “Listening to and learning from local ecological knowledge: A social science pilot study in McIntosh County, GA” summarizes information about the primary environmental concerns of interviewees. These included changes in freshwater, which many attributed to ditching and draining of swamplands and linked to effects on the crab fishery.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  This objective was completed in yr 1. We are collaborating with N. Heynan, who runs the CWT LTER Listening project, to use this work as the basis for a GCE Listening project.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  This objective was completed in yr 1.

  • 1B.2  Evaluate market and non-market values of natural resources in McIntosh County (yr 1)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We evaluated the potential effects of future development in McIntosh County by combining a cost of community services analysis with an ecosystem service valuation approach. Funding for this study was split with Georgia Sea Grant.

      Results:  In a study of the value of resources in McIntosh County, Schmidt et al. (submitted) found that 1) forested wetlands generate relatively little revenue to either private landowners or in taxes to the county from extractive uses, but have very high value relative other land cover types in the provision of ecosystem services, 2) forest lands contribute much more in revenue than they receive in services, whereas residential properties cost more in services than they generate in revenue, and 3) significant gains in ecosystem service preservation, hazard reduction, and in lower costs to the county in municipal services could be achieved by restricting new development from within the 500 year floodplain.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  This objective was completed in yr 1 (see Schmidt et al. 2014).

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  This objective was completed in yr 1.

  • 1B.3  Incorporate information on human activities into the GCE database (yr 1-6)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  GCE took the lead on the development of a cross-site database on the extent and types of coastal armoring structures present at coastal LTER sites, which will be hosted the GCE LTER website. We also used newly-available Lidar data to develop a high-resolution hammock inventory for the state of GA.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  Data from an archeological survey documenting human occupation of hammocks around Sapelo Island and a radiocarbon database for the entire Georgia coast were both uploaded to the GCE catalog.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We developed an armored shoreline GIS database based on 2013 imagery. This is being compared to a similar 2006 database to examine rates of armoring and preferential areas of armoring in the GCE domain.

  • 1B.4  Assess changes in Native American economic systems over time and their impact on the coastal Georgia landscape (yr 1-4)
    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  This past summer we investigated Kenan Field, the largest archaeological site with continuous Native American occupation on Sapelo Island (4,000 y).

      Results:  DePratter and Thompson (2013) evaluated changes in the shoreline position over the past 4000 years for the northern Georgia Coast. They documented large-scale shifts in shoreline positions that account for the timing of current landforms on the Georgia coast, and evaluated this information in the context of archaeology, ecology and geology.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We continued our investigations of human population growth in the domain (both Native Americans and historic EuroAmericans) in the context of ecological change.

      Results:  We see a large-scale decline in the radiocarbon record for specific types of human settlements at around 3800 BP. We are working on a paper documenting this shift, which we believe relates to large scale environmental change.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We continued our investigations of human population growth in the domain (both Native Americans and historic EuroAmericans) in the context of ecological change. This past year we excavated materials from 3800 BP to provide insight into an observed large-scale decline in the radiocarbon record that occurred at that time. We are also using dendrochronology as the basis for paleoclimate reconstruction of sea level rise and drought events.

Research Projects by Objective

1A. Climate, Water Chemistry and Oceanic Exchange

1. Install and maintain an eddy covariance flux tower in the Duplin River

Eddy covariance flux tower for measuring gas exchange between salt marshes and the atmosphere
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2012)
principal investigator(s): Daniela Di Iorio

2. Collect ongoing information on climate and oceanographic conditions, sea level, and river discharge

Altamaha River salinity modeling
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2000)
principal investigator(s): Merryl Alber

Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Climate monitoring program
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2002)
principal investigator(s): Daniela Di Iorio, Dorset Hurley, Wade M. Sheldon Jr.

4. Measure exchange between the mouths of the estuary and the coastal ocean

Deployment of 7 moorings in the Georgia coastal domain
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2014 to 2015
principal investigator(s): Daniela Di Iorio

1B. Human activities on the Landscape

3. Incorporate information on human activities in the GCE database

Shoreline Survey
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2013 to 2013
principal investigator(s): Merryl Alber

Outcomes Figures and Tables

2013 Activities Figure 1

2013 Activities Figure  1

2013 Outcomes Figure 1

2013 Outcomes Figure  1

Literature Cited in Outcomes

Addes, D. 2014. Presentation: Listening to and learning from local ecological knowledge: A social science pilot study in McIntosh County, GA. Exploring the Values of the Coast. Social Coast Forum 2014, February 18-20, 2014, Charleston, South Carolina.

DePratter, C. and Thompson, V.D. 2013. Past Shorelines of the Georgia Coast. Pages 145 in: Life Among the Tides: Recent Archaeology on the Georgia Bight. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Schaefer, S.C. 2014. Controls on nitrogen inputs, loads, and in-stream concentrations in the Altamaha River, Georgia, and beyond. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Schmidt, J.P., Moore, R. and Alber, M. 2014. Integrating ecosystem services and local government finances intoland use planning: A case study from coastal Georgia. Landscape and Urban Planning. 122:56 - 67. (DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.11.008)

Sheldon, J.E. and Burd, A.B. 2014. Alternating Effects of Climate Drivers on Altamaha River Discharge to Coastal Georgia, USA. Estuaries and Coasts. 37:772–788. (DOI: 10.1007/s12237-013-9715-z)

Takagi, K. and Joye, S.B. (in review). Agents of change and temporal shifts in the Altamaha River nutrient dynamics. Biogeochemistry.

All Related Publications

Journal Articles

O'Connell, J. 2016. A smart classifier for extracting environmental data from digital image time-series: Applications for PhenoCam data in a tidal salt marsh. Environmental Modelling & Software. 84:134-139. (DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2016.06.025)

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2006. The calculation of estuarine turnover times using freshwater fraction and tidal prism models: a critical evaluation. Estuaries and Coasts. 29(1):133-146.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2002. A comparison of residence time calculations using simple compartment models of the Altamaha River estuary, Georgia. Estuaries. 25(6B):1304-1317.

Conference Papers (Peer Reviewed)

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2005. Comparing Transport Times Through Salinity Zones in the Ogeechee and Altamaha River Estuaries Using SqueezeBox. In: Hatcher, K.J. (editor). Proceedings of the 2005 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2003. Simulating material movement through the lower Altamaha River Estuary using a 1-D box model. Hatcher, K.J. (editor). Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Blanton, J.O., Alber, M. and Sheldon, J.E. 2001. Salinity response of the Satilla River Estuary to seasonal changes in freshwater discharge. Pages 619-622 in: Hatcher, K.J. (editor). Proceedings of the 2001 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Conference Posters and Presentations

Sheldon, J.E. and Burd, A.B. 2009. Presentation: An In-depth Look at Alternating Effects of Climate Signals on Freshwater Delivery to Coastal Georgia, U.S.A. Hydrologic Prediction in Estuaries and Coastal Ecosystems. CERF 2009: Estuaries and Coasts in a Changing World, November 1-5, 2009, Portland, OR.

Sheldon, J.E. and Burd, A.B. 2007. Poster: Detecting climate signals in river discharge and precipitation data for the central Georgia coast. 2007 AERS/SEERS Meeting, March 15-17, 2007, Pine Knoll Shores, NC.

Alber, M. and Sheldon, J.E. 2006. Calculating estuary turnover times during non-steady-state conditions using freshwater fraction techniques. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society meeting, Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida.

Alber, M. and Sheldon, J.E. 2006. Presentation: Simple tools for assessing coastal systems: can we get there from here? Coastal Observing Systems Workshop, LTER All Scientists Meeting, September 20-24, 2006, Estes Park Colorado.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2005. Poster: New and improved: Modeling mixing time scales in the Altamaha River estuary. GCE-LTER 2005 Annual Meeting. GCE-LTER, Feb. 11-12, 2005, Athens, Georgia.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2005. Presentation: Beyond whole-estuary flushing times: Using transport times through salinity zones to explain chlorophyll patterns in the Altamaha River estuary (Georgia, USA). Estuarine Interactions: biological-physical feedbacks and adaptations. 2005 Estuarine Research Federation Meeting. October 16-20, 2005, Norfolk, Virginia.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2004. Presentation: SqueezeBox: Flow-scaled 1-D box models for estuary residence time estimates. NOS Workshop on Residence/Flushing Times in Bays and Estuaries. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, June 8-9, 2004, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2004. Presentation: SqueezeBox: Flow-scaled 1-D box models for estuary residence time estimates. Spring 2004 meeting. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society (SEERS), October 14-16, 2004, Wilmington, North Carolina.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2003. Poster: Modeling mixing time scales and transport of dissolved substances in the Altamaha River estuary. 2003 LTER All Scientist's Meeting, "Embarking on a Decade of Synthesis". LTER, Sept. 18-21, 2003, Seattle, Washington.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2003. Presentation: The equivalence of estuarine turnover times calculated using fraction of freshwater and tidal prism models. 2003 Estuarine Research Federation meeting, Sept. 14-18, 2003, Seattle, WA.

Sheldon, J.E. and Alber, M. 2001. Poster: Any way you slice it: A comparison of residence time calculations using simple compartment models of the Altamaha River estuary. ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey (16th Biennial Conference of the Estuarine Research Federation). Freshwater Inflow: Science, Policy and Management. Estuarine Research Federation, Nov. 4-8, 2001, St. Pete Beach, Florida.

Alber, M. and Sheldon, J.E. 2000. Presentation: Residence times in the Altamaha River Estuary: a progress report. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society Meeting. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society, Oct 01, 2000, Tampa, Florida.

Newsletter and Newspaper Articles

Sheldon, W.M. 2006. Mining and Integrating Data from ClimDB and USGS using the GCE Data Toolbox. DataBits: An electronic newsletter for Information Managers, Spring 2006 issue. Long Term Ecological Research Network, Albuquerque, NM.

Data Sets by Research Topic

Core LTER Data Sets

Meteorology

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2016 to 31-Dec-2016

Long-term Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 03-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2016

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2015 to 31-Dec-2015

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2014 to 31-Dec-2014

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2013 to 31-Dec-2013

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2012 to 31-Dec-2012

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2011 to 31-Dec-2011

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2010 to 31-Dec-2010

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2009 to 31-Dec-2009

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2008 to 31-Dec-2008

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2007 to 31-Dec-2007

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2006 to 31-Dec-2006

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2005 to 31-Dec-2005

Annual summaries of daily climatological observations from the National Weather Service weather station at the UGA Marine Institute on Sapelo Island, Georgia for 1958 to 2004

Annual summaries of daily climatological observations from the National Weather Service weather station at Brunswick, Georgia for 1915 to 2004

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2004 to 31-Dec-2004

Climate data from the SINERR/GCE/UGAMI weather station at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island, Georgia, from 01-Jan-2003 to 31-Dec-2003

Daily climatological observations from Sapelo Island, Georgia, from May 1957 through July 2001

Daily climatological observations from Sapelo Island, Georgia, from June 1980 through June 2001

Ancillary Data Sets

GCE Data Portal - NWS Brunswick climate data

GCE Data Portal - Marsh Landing data

GCE Data Portal - UGA Marine Institute climate data

GCE Data Portal - Hudson Creek/Meridian Landing data

 
LTER
NSF

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE-9982133, OCE-0620959 and OCE-1237140. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.