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Brian Silliman, Co-Investigator / Assistant Professor

Brian Silliman

Research Emphasis:

The majority of my work has been with plant and animal communities on the temperate shorelines of the Western Atlantic, particularly those in salt marsh and rocky intertidal habitats. I am an experimental ecologist and employ manipulative field studies in coastline systems to examine and unravel how patterns in natural communities are generated and maintained. I incorporate population (density dependence), community (multi-trophic aspects of food webs), and ecosystem (biogeochemical cycles) level processes in my investigations and typically design experiments with specific conservation or management problems in mind. My primary research focuses on how consumers (top-down forces) and nutrients (bottom-up forces) interact to control structure and productivity of marine plant communities. This research is particularly applicable to marine conservation efforts because continued coastal development and increased demand for seafood have resulted in heavy nutrient loading and severely depleted fisheries in near-shore marine communities.

GCE Committees:

GCE Predator Exclusion Experiment Committee

Contact Information:

Primary Organization:  Duke University

Mailing Address:

Dr. Brian R. Silliman
135 Duke Marine Lab Rd.
Duke University Marine Lab
Beaufort, North Carolina 28516-9721

Office Phone:  (352) 392-1137

E-Mail:  brian.silliman@duke.edu

Web Page:  http://fds.duke.edu/db/Nicholas/msc/faculty/brs29

Other Identity Systems:

ORCID:  orcid.org/0000-0001-6360-650X

GCE Data Sets:

INV-GCEM-1904a (Survey of adult and juvenile periwinkle snail (Littoraria irrorata) density in mid-marsh and creekbank plots at GCE LTER study sites in October 2018.)

INV-GCEM-1904 (Yearly survey of barnacle settlement near creekbank plots at GCE LTER study sites in October 2018)

INV-GCEM-1704a (Survey of adult and juvenile periwinkle snail (Littoraria irrorata) density in mid-marsh and creekbank plots at GCE LTER study sites in October 2016.)

INV-GCEM-1804a (Survey of adult and juvenile periwinkle snail (Littoraria irrorata) density in mid-marsh and creekbank plots at GCE LTER study sites in October 2017.)

INV-GCEM-1504a (Survey of adult and juvenile periwinkle snail (Littoraria irrorata) density in mid-marsh and creekbank plots at GCE LTER study sites in October 2014.)

(most recent displayed - view all)

GCE Publications and Presentations: (custom bibliography)

Journal Articles

Sievers, M., Brown, C., Buelow, C., Hale, R., Ostrowski, A., Saunders, M., Silliman, B.R., Swearer, S., Turschwell, M., Valdez, S. and Connolly, R. 2022. Greater Consideration of Animals Will Enhance Coastal Restoration Outcomes. BioScience. 72(11):1088-1098. (DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biac088)

Temmink, R.J., Lamers, L., Angelini, C., Bouma, T.J., Fritz, C., van de Koppel, J., Lexmond, R., Rietkerk, M., Silliman, B.R., Joosten, H. and van der Heide, T. 2022. Recovering wetland biogeomorphic feedbacks to restore the world's biotic carbon hotspots. Science. 376(6593). (DOI: 10.1126/science.abn1479)

Hammann, L., Silliman, B.R. and Blasius, B. 2021. Optimal Planting Distance in a Simple Model of Habitat Restoration With an Allee Effect. Frontiers in Marine Science. (DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.610412)

Hensel, M.S., Silliman, B.R., Hensel, E. and Byrnes, J. 2021. Feral hogs control brackish marsh plant communities over time. Ecology. (DOI: 0.1002/ecy.3572)

Hensel, M.S., Silliman, B.R., von de Koppel, J., Hensel, E., Sharp, S., Crotty, S.M. and Byrnes, J. 2021. A large invasive consumer reduces coastal ecosystem resilience by disabling positive species interactions. Nature Communications. 12(1). (DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26504-4)

Renzi, J.J. and Silliman, B.R. 2021. Increasing grazer density leads to linear decreases in Spartina alterniflora biomass and exponential increases in grazing pressure across a barrier island. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 659:49-58. (DOI: 10.3354/meps13569)

Gaskins, L., Paxton, A. and Silliman, B.R. 2020. Megafauna in salt marshes. Frontiers in Marine Science. (DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.561476)

He, Q., Li, H., Xu, C., Sun, Q., Bertness, M.D., Fang, C., Li, B. and Silliman, B.R. 2020. Consumer regulation of the carbon cycle in coastal wetland ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. (DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2019.0451)

Morton, J.P. and Silliman, B.R. 2020. Parasites enhance resistance to drought in a coastal ecosystem. Ecology. (DOI: 10.1002/ecy.2897)

Reeves, S.E., Renzi, J.J., Fobert, E.K., Silliman, B.R., Hancock, B. and Gillies, C.L. 2020. Facilitating better outcomes: How positive species interactions can improve oyster reef restoration. Frontiers in Marine Science. (DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00656)

Temmink, R.J., Christianen, M., Fivash, G.S., Angelini, C., Bostrom, C., Didderen, K., Engel, S.M., Esteban, N., Gaeckle, J.L., Gagnon, K., Govers, L.L., Infantes, E., van Katwijk, M.M., Kipson, S., Lamers, L., Lengkeek, W., Silliman, B.R., van Tussenbroek, B.I., Unsworth, R.K.F., Yaakub, S.M., Bouma, T.J. and van der Heide, T. 2020. Mimicry of emergent traits amplifies coastal restoration success. Nature Communications. (DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17438-4)

He, Q. and Silliman, B.R. 2019. Climate Change, Human Impacts, and Coastal Ecosystems in the Anthropocene. Current Biology. 29(19):1021-1035. (DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.08.042)

Renzi, J.J., He, Q. and Silliman, B.R. 2019. Harnessing positive species interactions to enhance coastal wetland restoration. Frontiers in Marine Science. (DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00131)

Silliman, B.R., He, Q., Angelini, C., Smith, C.S., Kirwan, M.L., Daleo, P., Renzi, J.J., Butler, J., Osborne, T.Z., Nifong, J.C. and van de Koppel, J. 2019. Field Experiments and Meta-analysis Reveal Wetland Vegetation as a Crucial Element in the Coastal Protection Paradigm. Current Biology. 29(11):1800-1806. (DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.017)

Angelini, C., van Montfrans, S., Hensel, M.S., He, Q. and Silliman, B.R. 2018. The importance of an underestimated grazer under climate change: how crab density, consumer competition, and physical stress affect salt marsh resilience. Oecologia. 187(1):205-217. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-018-4112-8)

Griffin, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2018. Predator size-structure and species identity determine cascading effects in a coastal ecosystem. Ecology and Evolution. 8:12435-12442. (DOI: 10.1002/ece3.4571)

Silliman, B.R. and He, Q. 2018. Physical Stress, Consumer Control, and New Theory in Ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 33(7):492 - 503. (DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.04.015)

Silliman, B.R., Hughes, B.B., Gaskins, L., He, Q., Tinker, T., Read, A., Nifong, J.C. and Stepp, R. 2018. Are the ghosts of nature’s past haunting ecology today? Current Biology. 28:R527–R548. (DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.002)

Thomsen, M.S., Alteiri, A., Angelini, C., Bishop, M., Gribben, G., Lear, G., Schiel, D., Silliman, B.R., South, P., Watson, D., Wernberg, T. and Zotz, G. 2018. Secondary foundation species enhance biodiversity. Nature Ecology and Evolution. 2:634-639. (DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0487-5)

Derksen-Hooijberg, M., Angelini, C., Lamers, L., Borst, A., Smolders, A.J.P., Hoogveld, J., de Paoli, H., Silliman, B.R. and van der Heide, T. 2017. Mutualistic interactions amplify saltmarsh restoration success. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2017:1-10. (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12960)

Nifong, J.C. and Silliman, B.R. 2017. Abiotic factors influence the dynamics of marine habitat use by a highly mobile “freshwater” top predator. Hydrobiologia. 802(1):155-174. (DOI: 10.1007/s10750-017-3255-7)

Zengel, S., Weaver, J., Pennings, S.C., Silliman, B.R., Deis, D., Montague, C.L., Zimmerman, A., Rutherford, N. and Nixon, Z. 2017. Five years of Deepwater Horizon oil spill effects on marsh periwinkles Littoraria irrorata. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 576:135-144. (DOI: 10.3354/meps11827)

Angelini, C., Griffin, J., van de Koppel, J., Derksen-Hooijberg, M., Lamers, L., Smolders, A.J.P., van der Heide, T. and Silliman, B.R. 2016. A keystone mutualism underpins resilience of a coastal ecosystem to drought. Nature Communications. 7:12473. (DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12473)

Freita, R., Schrack, E., He, Q., Silliman, B.R., Furlong, E.B., Telles, A.C. and Costa, C.S. 2016. Consumer control of the establishment of marsh foundation plants in intertidal mudflats. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 547:79-89. (DOI: 10.3354/meps11624)

He, Q. and Silliman, B.R. 2016. Consumer control as a common driver of coastal vegetation worldwide. Ecological Monographs. 86(3):278-294. (DOI: 10.1002/ecm.1221)

Silliman, B.R., Dixon, P.M., Wobus, C., He, Q., Daleo, P., Hughes, B.B., Rissing, M., Willis, J.M. and Hester, M. 2016. Thresholds in marsh resilience to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Scientific Reports. 6(32520). (DOI: 10.1038/srep32520)

van der Zee, E.M., Angelini, C., Govers, L.L., Christianen, M.J., Alteiri, A., van der Reijden, K.J., Silliman, B.R., van de Koppel, J., van der Geest, M., van Gils, J.A., van der Veer, H.W., Piersma, T., de Ruiter, P.C., Olff, H. and van der Heide, T. 2016. How habitat-modifying organisms structure the food web of two coastal ecosystems. Proc. R. Soc. B. 283(1826):9. (DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.2326)

Angelini, C., van der Heide, J., Griffin, J., Derksen-Hooijberg, M., Lamers, L., Smolders, A.J.P. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Foundation species' overlap enhances biodiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality from the patch to landscape scale. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. (DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.0421)

Atkins, R., Griffin, J.N., Angelini, C., O'Connor, M. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Consumer- plant interaction strength: importance of body size, density and metabolic biomass. OIKOS. (DOI: 10.1111/oik.01966)

Davidson, A., Griffin, J., Atkins, R., Angelini, C., Coleman, F. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Non-consumptive predator effects intensify grazer-plant interactions by driving vertical habitat shifts. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 537:49-58. (DOI: 10.3354/meps11419)

Griffin, J.N., Toscano, B., Griffen, B. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Does relative abundance modify multiple predator effects? Basic and Applied Ecology. 7:641-651. (DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2015.05.003)

He, Q. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Biogeographic consequences of nutrient enrichment for plant-herbivore interactions in coastal wetlands. Ecology Letters. 18:462–471. (DOI: 10.1111/ele.12429)

Nifong, J.C., Layman, C. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Size, sex, and individual-level behavior drive intra-population variation in cross-ecosystem foraging of a top-predator. Journal of Animal Ecology. (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12306)

Rosenblatt, A.E., Nifong, J.C., Heithaus, M., Mazzotti, F.J., Cherkiss, M., Jeffery, B., Elsey, R.M., Decker, R., Silliman, B.R., Guillette, L., Lowers, R. and Larson, J. 2015. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator. Special Issue: INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL NICHE SPECIALIZATION. Oecologia. 178:5-16. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-014-3201-6)

Silliman, B.R., Schrack, E., He, Q., Cope, R., Santoni, A., van der Heide, T., Jacobi, R. and van de Koppel, J. 2015. Facilitation shifts paradigms and can amplify coastal restoration efforts. PNAS. 112(46):14295 - 14300. (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1515297112)

von de Koppel, J., van der Heide, J., Alteiri, A., Eriksson, B., Bouma, H., Olff, H. and Silliman, B.R. 2015. Long-distance interactions regulate the structure and resilience of coastal ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science. 7:139–158. (DOI: 10.1146/annurev-marine-010814-015805)

Angelini, C. and Silliman, B.R. 2014. Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system. Ecology. 95(1):185-196.

Freita, R., Schrack, L., Sieg, R.D., Silliman, B.R. and Costa, C. 2014. Grazing scar characteristics impact degree of fungal facilitation in /Spartina alterniflora/ leaves in a South American Salt Marsh. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 58(1):103-108. (DOI: 10.1590/S1516-8913201400030)

Nifong, J.C., Nifong, R., Silliman, B.R., Lowers, R., Guillette, L., Ferguson, M., Welsh, M., Abernathy, K. and Marshall, G. 2014. Animal-borne imaging reveals novel insights into the foraging behaviors and diel activity of a large-bodied apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). PLOS One. 9(1). (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083953)

Silliman, B.R. 2014. Salt marshes. Current Biology. 24(9):348-350. (DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.001)

Silliman, B.R., Mozdzer, C., Angelini, C., Brundage, J., Bakker, J., Esselink, P., van de Koppel, J. and Baldwin, A. 2014. Livestock as a Biological Control Agent for an Invasive Wetland Plant. PeerJ. 2:567. (DOI: 10.7717/peerj.567)

Soomsdat, N., Griffin, J.N., McCoy, M., Hensel, M.S., Buhler, S., Chejanovski, Z.A. and Silliman, B.R. 2014. Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer. OIKOS. 123(9):1081-1090. (DOI: 10.1111/oik.01579)

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Olden, J., Byers, J., Bruno, J.F., Silliman, B.R. and Schiel, D. 2014. Forty years of experiments on invasive species: are biases limiting our understanding of impacts? NeoBiota. 22:1-22. (DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.22.6224)

Cheong, S.M., Silliman, B.R., Wong, P., Wesienback, B., Kim, C. and Guannel, G. 2013. Coastal Adaptation Defense with Ecological Engineering. Nature Climate Change. 3:787 - 791. (DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1854)

Hensel, M.S. and Silliman, B.R. 2013. Consumer diversity across kingdoms supports multiple functions in a coastal ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110(51):20621-20626. (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1312317110)

Mahmoudi, N., Porter, T., Zimmerman, A., Fulthopre, R., Kasozi, G., Slater, G. and Silliman, B.R. 2013. Rapid degradation of Deepwater Horizon spilled oil by indigenous microbial communities in Louisiana salt marsh sediments. Environmental Science and Technology. 47(23):13303-13312. (DOI: 10.1021/es4036072)

Nifong, J.C. and Silliman, B.R. 2013. Impacts of a large-bodied, apex predator (Alligator mississippiensis Daudin 1801) on salt marsh food webs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 440(2013):185-191. (DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2013.01.002)

Nifong, J.C., Lowers, R., Silliman, B.R., Abernathy, K. and Marshall, G. 2013. Attachment and deployment of remote video/audio recording devices (Crittercam) on wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis Duadin 1801). Herpetological Review. 44(2):243-247.

Pimiento, C., Monaco, E., Barbour, A. and Silliman, B.R. 2013. Predation on speared lionfish /Pterois volitans/ by spotted moray /Gymnothorax moringa. Florida Scientist. 76(3-4):391-394.

Rosenblatt, A.E., Heithaus, M., Mather, M., Matich, P., Nifong, J.C., Ripple, W. and Silliman, B.R. 2013. The Roles of Large Top Predators in Coastal Ecosystems: New Insights from Long Term Ecological Research. Special Issue: Coastal Long Term Ecological Research. Oceanography. 26(3):156 - 167. (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.59)

Silliman, B.R., McCoy, M., Angelini, C., Holt, R.D., Griffin, J.N. and van de Koppel, J. 2013. Consumer Fronts, Global Change, and Runaway Collapse in Ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 44:503 - 538. (DOI: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135753)

Angelini, C. and Silliman, B.R. 2012. Patch size-dependent community recovery after massive disturbance. Ecology. 93(1):101–110. (DOI: 10.1890/11-0557.1)

Diaz-Ferguson, E., Haney, A., Wares, J.P. and Silliman, B.R. 2012. Genetic structure and connectivity patterns of two Caribbean rocky-intertidal gastropods. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 78:112 - 118. (DOI: 10.1093/mollus/eyr050)

Nifong, J.C., Rosenblatt, A.E., Johnson, N., Barichivich, W., Silliman, B.R. and Heithaus, M. 2012. American Alligators Digestion Rate of Blue Crabs and its Implications for Stomach Contents Analysis. Copeia. 2012(3):419-423. (DOI: 10.1643/CE-11-177)

Silliman, B.R. and Angelini, C. 2012. Trophic cascades across diverse plant ecosystems. Nature Education Knowledge. 3(9):3.

Silliman, B.R., Diller, J., McCoy, M., Earl, K., von de Koppel, J. and Zimmerman, A. 2012. Degradation and resilience in Louisiana salt marshes following the BP-DHW oil spill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(28):11234-11239.

Tallis, H., Lester, S., Ruckelshaus, M., Plummer, M., McLeod, K., Guerry, A., Andelman, S., Caldwell, M., Conte, M., Copps, S., Fox, D., Fujita, R., Gaines, S., Gelfenbaum, G., Gold, B., Kareiva, P., Kim, C., Lee, K., Papenfus, M., Redman, S., Silliman, B.R., Wainger, L. and White, C. 2012. New metrics for managing and sustaining the ocean's bounty. Marine Policy. 36(1):303–306. (DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2011.03.013)

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Engelen, H., Tuya, F., Vanderklift, M., Holmer, M., McGlathery, K., Arenas, F., Kotta, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2012. A meta-analysis of seaweed impacts on seagrasses: generalities and knowledge gaps. Plos ONE. 7(1).

van der Heide, T., Govers, L.L., de Fouw, J., Olff, H., van der Geest, M., van Katwijk, M.M., Piersma, T., van de Koppel, J., Silliman, B.R., Smolders, A.J.P. and van Gils, J.A. 2012. A three-stage symbioses forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems. Science. 319:321-323.

Angelini, C., Alteiri, A., Silliman, B.R. and Bertness, M.D. 2011. Interactions among Foundation Species and Their Consequences for Community Organization, Biodiversity, and Conservation. BioScience. 61(10):782-789. (DOI: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.10.8)

Barbier, E.B., Hacker, S.D., Koch, E.W., Stier, A. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. The Value of Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystem Services. Ecological Monographs. 81:169-193.

Bromberg-Gedan, K., Kirwan, M., Barbier, E.B., Wolanski, E. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. The present and future role of coastal wetland vegetation in protecting shorelines: answering recent challenges to the paradigm. Climatic Change. 106:7-29.

Garcia, E.A., Bertness, M.D., Alberti, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. Crab regulation of cross-ecosystem resource transfer by marine foraging fire ants. Oecologia. 166:1111-1119. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-011-1952-x)

Griffin, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. Predator diversity stabilizes and strengthens trophic control of a keystone grazer. Biology Letters. 7:79-82. (DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2010.0626)

Griffin, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. Resource Partitioning and Why It Matters. Nature Education Knowledge. 2(1):8.

Griffin, J., Butler, J., Soomsdat, N., Brun, K., Chejanovski, Z.A. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. Top predators suppress rather than facilitate plants in a trait-mediated tri-trophic cascade. Biology Letters. Published online. (DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0166)

Mcleod, E., Chmura, G.L., Bouillon, S., Salm, R., Bjork, M., Duarte, C.M., Lovelock, C.E., Schlesinger, W.H. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. A Blueprint for Blue Carbon: Towards an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 9(10):552=560. (DOI: 10.1890/110004)

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Olden, J., Griffin, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. A framework to study the context-dependent impacts of marine invasions. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 400:322-327. (DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.02.033)

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Olden, J., Griffin, J.N. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. A broad framework to organize and compare invasive species impacts. Environmental Research. 111:899-908.

Alberti, J., Casariego, A.M., Daleo, P., Fanjul, E., Silliman, B.R., Bertness, M.D. and Iribarne, O. 2010. Abiotic stress mediates top-down and bottom-up control in a Southwestern Atlantic salt marsh. Oecologia. 163:181-191. (DOI: 10.1007/s00442-009-1504-9)

Altieri, A.H., van Wesenbeeck, B.K., Bertness, M.D. and Silliman, B.R. 2010. Facilitation cascade explains positive relationship between native biodiversity and invasion success. Ecology. 91:1269-1275. (DOI: 10.1890/09-1301.1)

Diaz-Ferguson, E., Robinson, J.D., Silliman, B.R. and Wares, J.P. 2010. Comparative Phylogeography of East Coast American Salt Marsh Communities. Estuaries and Coasts. 33:828-839. (DOI: 10.1007/s12237-009-9220-6)

Granek, E.F., Polasky, S., Kappel, C.V., Reed, D., Stoms, D., Koch, E.W., Kennedy, C.J., Cramer, A., Hacker, S.D., Barbier, E.B., Aswani, S., Ruckelshaus, M., Perillo, M.E., Silliman, B.R., Muthiga, N., Bael, D. and Wolanski, E. 2010. Ecosystem services as a common language for coastal ecosystem-based management. Conservation Biology. 24:207-216. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01355.x)

Holdredge, C., Bertness, M.D., Wettberg, E.V. and Silliman, B.R. 2010. Nutrient enrichment enhances hidden differences in phenotype to drive a cryptic plant invasion. Oikos. 119:1776-1784. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2010.18647.x)

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Alteiri, A., Tuya, F., Gulbransen, D., McGlathery, K.J., Holmer, M. and Silliman, B.R. 2010. Habitat cascades: the conceptual context and global relevance of facilitation cascades via habitat formation and modification. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 50:158-175. (DOI: 10.1093/icb/icq042)

Bromberg-Gedan, K. and Silliman, B.R. 2009. Using Facilitation Theory to Enhance Mangrove Restoration. Ambio. 38(2):109.

Bromberg-Gedan, K., Silliman, B.R. and Bertness, M.D. 2009. Centuries of human-driven change in salt marsh ecosystems. Annual Review of Marine Science. 1:117-141. (DOI: 10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163930)

Daleo, P., Silliman, B.R., Alberti, J., Escapa, M., Canepuccia, A., Pena, N. and Iribarne, O. 2009. Grazer facilitation of fungal infection and the control of plant growth in south-western Atlantic salt marshes. Journal of Plant Ecology. 97:781-787. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01508.x)

Farina, J., Silliman, B.R. and Bertness, M.D. 2009. Can conservation biologists rely on established community structure rules to manage novel systems? . . Not in salt marshes. Ecological Applications. 19(2):413–422. (DOI: 10.1890/07-1000.1)

Koch, E.W., Barbier, E.B., Silliman, B.R., Reed, D.J., Perillo, M.E., Hacker, S.D., Granek, E.F., Primavera, J.H., Muthiga, N., Polasky, S., Halpern, B.S., Kennedy, C.J., Kappel, C.V. and Wolanski, E. 2009. Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 7(1):29-37. (DOI: 10.1890/080126)

Thomsen, M.S., McGlathery, K.J., Schwarzschild, A. and Silliman, B.R. 2009. Distribution and ecological role of the non-native macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla in Virginia salt marshes. Biological Invasions. 11(10):2303-2316. (DOI: 10.1007/s10530-008-9417-9)

Thomsen, M.S., Wernberg, T., Tuya, F. and Silliman, B.R. 2009. Evidence for impacts of non-indigenous macroalgae: a meta-analysis of experimental field studies. Journal of Phycology. 45(4):812-819. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2009.00709.x)

Bertness, M.D. and Silliman, B.R. 2008. Consumer Control of Salt Marshes Driven by Human Disturbance. Conservation Biology. 22(3):618-623. (DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00962.x)

Sala, N., Bertness, M.D. and Silliman, B.R. 2008. The Dynamics of Top-down and Bottom-up control in New England salt marshes. Oikos. 117(7):1050-1056. (DOI: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2008.16296.x)

Gustafson, D.J., Kilheffer, J. and Silliman, B.R. 2006. Relative impacts of Littoraria irrorata and Prokelisia marginata on Spartina alterniflora growth. Estuaries and Coasts. 29(4):639-644.

Pennings, S.C. and Silliman, B.R. 2005. Linking biogeography and community ecology: latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interaction strength. Ecology. 86:2310-2319.

Silliman, B.R. and Newell, S.Y. 2003. Fungal farming in a snail. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100:15643-15648. (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2535227100)

Books and Book Sections

Bertness, M.D., Bruno, J.F., Silliman, B.R. and Stachowicz, J.J. 2013. Marine Community Ecology and Conservation. Sinauer Associates, Inc. 560 pages.

Silliman, B.R. 2013. Salt Marshes Under Global Siege. In: Ray, G., McCormick-Ray, J. and Wiley, J. (editors). Coastal Marine Conservation: Science and Policy.

Pennings, S.C., Alber, M., Alexander, C.R. Jr., Booth, M.G., Burd, A.B., Cai, W.-J., Craft, C.B., DePratter, C., Di Iorio, D., Hollibaugh, J.T., Hopkinson, C.S., Joye, S.B., Meile, C., Moore, W.S., Silliman, B.R., Thompson, V.D. and Wares, J.P. 2012. South Atlantic Tidal Wetlands. Pages 45-61 in: Batzer, D.P. and Baldwin, A. (editors). Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Barbier, E.B., Hacker, S.D., Koch, E.W., Stier, A. and Silliman, B.R. 2011. Estuarine and Coastal Ecosystems and Their Services. Pages 109–127 in: van den Belt, M. and Costanza, R. (editors). Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. Elsevier. (DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-374711-2.01206-7)

Bertness, M.D., Silliman, B.R. and Holdredge, C. 2009. Shoreline development and the future of New England salt marsh landscapes. Pages 137-148 in: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press.

Bromberg, K. and Silliman, B.R. 2009. Patterns of salt marsh loss within coastal regions of North America: pre-settlement to present. Pages 253-266 in: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press.

Osgood, D. and Silliman, B.R. 2009. From climate change to snails: potential causes of salt marsh die-back along the U.S. Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coasts. Pages 231-252 in: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press.

Silliman, B.R., Bertness, M.D. and Thomsen, M.S. 2009. Top-down control and human intensification of consumer pressure in southern U.S. salt marshes. Pages 103-114 in: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts in Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. 2009. An introduction to human impacts on salt marshes: Are marshes at risk? In: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press.

Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. 2009. Salt marshes under global siege. Pages 391-398 in: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press.

Thomsen, M.S., Adams, P. and Silliman, B.R. 2009. Anthropogenic threats to Australasian coastal salt marshes. Pages 361-390 in: Silliman, B.R., Grosholtz, T. and Bertness, M.D. (editors). Human Impacts on Salt Marshes: A Global Perspective. University of California Press.

Conference Posters and Presentations

Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Donnelly, J.P., Ewanchuk, P.J., Silliman, B.R. and Callaway, R.M. 2001. Presentation: Impacts of global change on coastal salt marshes. Keynote address to the German Limnological Association, September 17-21, 2001, Kiel, Germany.

Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Donnelly, J.P., Ewanchuk, P.J., Silliman, B.R. and Callaway, R.M. 2001. Presentation: Impacts of human activities on coastal salt marshes. Meeting of the Western Society of Naturalists, November 10-12, 2001, Ventura, California.

Newsletter and Newspaper Articles

Silliman, B.R. and Hensel, M.S. 2013. Quality of biodiversity, not just quantity, is key: Right mix of species is needed for conservation. In: Science Daily.


This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE-9982133, OCE-0620959, OCE-1237140 and OCE-1832178. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.