Area 2: Patterns within the Domain

Description Objectives Outcomes Figures Projects Publications Data Sets Show All  

Overview

Temporal and spatial variability in environmental forcing and human actions (Area 1) interact with the geomorphic characteristics of the landscape (e.g. soil type, elevation, drainage patterns) to produce gradients in salinity, nutrients, inundation, and larval dispersal. These in turn produce variations in habitat, biogeochemical processes, primary production, community composition, decomposition, and disturbance across the landscape. To understand these relationships, we need a long-term perspective on the temporal and spatial patterns of biotic and abiotic variables within the domain and how they relate to environmental gradients. We accomplish this through our core monitoring program (a continuation of efforts in GCE-II), with the addition of remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling.

Our goals are to describe temporal and spatial variability in physical (stratification strength, estuarine salt intrusion length, residence time), chemical (salinity, nutrient concentration and speciation, organic matter lability), geological (accretion) and biological (organism abundance and productivity, microbial processes) properties within the domain and to evaluate how they are affected by variations in river inflow and other boundary conditions.

We collect data documenting key ecosystem variables within the GCE domain. Major activities in this area consists of A) field monitoring of water and marsh attributes at our core monitoring sites, B) remote sensing of productivity and habitat shifts, and C) hydrodynamic modeling of water and salt transport.

Components

Area 2A. Monitoring

Our core monitoring program addresses the five LTER core areas and is conducted at 10 sites distributed throughout our domain: 3 along an onshore-offshore gradient in each Sound, and one in the Duplin River. We also collect water column samples at an offshore site (AL-02) to characterize the Altamaha River plume as it mixes with the ocean. We deploy sondes that monitor salinity, temperature, and pressure continuously at 9 of our sites and obtain vertical CTD profiles at all 11 sites during our mini-cruises, in which we collect discrete water samples to measure nutrients, chlorophyll, and suspended sediment. We monitor soil accretion, accumulation, compaction and decomposition; disturbance to plant communities; and plant and animal biomass, densities, and community composition in the marsh associated with each site.

In GCE-III we also added some new components to the monitoring program, including: 1) barnacle recruitment in marshes to explore variation in larval recruitment, 2) mixed plant community (Zizaniopsis/Spartina cynosuroides; S. cynosuroides/S. alterniflora) plots to characterize vegetation shifts between fresh, brackish and salt marsh habitats, 3) mixed plant community (Borrichia/Juncus) plots, which will augment existing plots (Juncus/S. alterniflora mixtures) to characterize vegetation shifts in the high marsh, 4) a new monitoring site in the tidal forest (GCE 11, instrumented in the same manner as our other stations with a moored sonde in the main channel and permanent vegetation, marsh plots, and sediment elevation tables) to assess the potential for salt water intrusion into the tidal fresh forest habitat, 5) a sonde that measures DO and pH by the flux tower.

We also monitor above and below-ground plant biomass monthly in stands of short, medium and tall Spartina to provide higher frequency data to support plant modeling and interpretation of flux tower measurements, and monitor the growth of headward-eroding creeks annually to document geomorphic change and provide context for creek growth experiments. In the fresh/brackish marsh (Area 3B) we will add quarterly transects in the Altamaha to document the extent of salinity intrusion as a function of river flow. In the high marsh (Area 3C) we will continue to me asure water level and salinity in groundwater wells at our instrumented hammocks (2 more years).

In Area 4 we will support the hydrodynamic model by measuring net transport between the Sounds and the shelf. We will also measure radon concentrations in the Duplin as a way to constrain groundwater input. We will support our projections of habitat provisioning by: 1) monitoring blue crab abundance in a creek in the Duplin River (with pop-up nets) to document temporal patterns in marsh access by an important consumer (weekly for 2 y, monthly thereafter; Area 3A), and 2) continuing weekly measurements of ammonium oxidizing bacteria to better characterize their seasonal dynamics in relation to environmental factors such as temperature (2 y).

Finally, we will support the development of C budgets by: 1) characterizing DOM composition and predominant sources in water samples collected at core monitoring sites, 2) measuring DIC, alkalinity and pH in the creek adjacent to the flux tower (quarterly for 2 y), and in the Duplin River (monthly for 2 y) and 3) measuring radioisotopes of cores (210 Pb, 137 Cs, 7 Be) in combination with sediment plates to determine deposition (transitory settlement) and accumulation (permanent storage) in each of our major habitat types.

Area 2B. Remote sensing of productivity and habitat shifts

We have used LIDAR and hyperspectral imaging to develop a detailed digital elevation model and vegetation map of the Duplin River marshes, which are guiding site selection and Duplin-scale research (Area 3A) and will be useful as a baseline for evaluating future change. In GCE-III we added several new remote sensing applications to extend the temporal and spatial scales of our research.

1) We are collecting high-resolution color aerial photographs of Altamaha Sound (Area 3B) and the Duplin River (Areas 3A, 3C) at low tide each fall. Images of the Altamaha will be used to delineate the major intertidal habitats along the estuary and evaluate shifts over time and space, and to document disturbance and recovery. Imagery of the Duplin will be used to evaluate disturbance, changes in creek geomorphology (particularly headward erosion of creeks) and changes in the high marsh border.

2) We will obtain annual Landsat multispectral images centered in monospecific stands of Spartina, Zizaniopsis, and Juncus (Areas 3A, B, C). These images will be analyzed for variability in plant biomass over time, allowing us to extend our field monitoring record back by 3 decades and test whether correlations between external drivers and plant productivity in permanent plots can be scaled to new and larger sites.

3) We will obtain multispectral MODIS data (8-day composite averages) for areas centered on the flux tower (Area 3A) to evaluate changes in biomass compared to those derived from flux tower sensors, with the goal of scaling our observations of marsh-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Where possible, this will be augmented with WorldView-2 satellite imagery to provide higher resolution information.

Area 2C. Hydrodynamic modeling of water and salt transport

We are developing high-resolution, three-dimensional, numerical hydrodynamic models of the Duplin River and the larger GCE domain as tools that will provide critical information about water circulation, the transport of materials by advection and dispersion, and residence time. The models will also provide predictions of salinity and inundation patterns across the landscape that are essential for addressing our central hypotheses regarding how these might be altered under different conditions (Area 4).

We are using the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) to develop a fine-scale model for the Duplin River, which will be nested in a larger GCE domain model. FVCOM, which has been used successfully in many estuaries, has unstructured grids that make it useful for resolving complex estuarine geometry and bathymetry. It also includes a wet/dry element analysis algorithm to model the moving surface boundary required to simulate the flooding/drying process. We will also explore the influence of the tidal marsh vegetation canopy on the flow and related frictional drag force and on the turbulence and related production and dissipation of kinetic energy by introducing parameterizations that are dependent on plant properties such as stem diameter and density.

Research Objectives

Research Outcomes by Objective

  • 2A.1  Continue the GCE core monitoring program in the water column
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We maintain sondes at 9 GCE sites (Fig. 2). We also take CTD measurements and collect and processes water samples according to the schedule in Table 1.
      2015: We maintain sondes at 9 GCE sites (Fig. 2 ). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1. This past year we added measurements of pH, DIC and alkalinity, and began documenting salinity intrusion into the Altamaha.
      2016: We maintain sondes at 9 GCE sites (Activities Fig. 2). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1. This past year we added a SeapHOx instrument (purchased with supplemental funds), which provides continuous, highly accurate measurements of pH. The instrument is being tested at the mouth of the Duplin River.
      2017: We continue to maintain sondes at 10 GCE sites (Fig. 2). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1.
      2018: We continue to maintain sondes at 10 GCE sites (Fig. 4). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1. In March 2017 we increased nutrient sampling to monthly at all GCE sites and added 10 additional sites as part of a GA EPD project to establish numeric nutrient criteria.

      Results:  2014: Di Iorio and Castelao (2013) summarized salinity, wind, sea level and river discharge data from 2002 to 2012 and compared results to an idealized model of the GCE domain. They found that system wide freshening is dominated by river forcing, and that changes in salinity due to wind forcing causes a different response in the Altamaha River than in Doboy or Sapelo Sound. Model results indicate that the Intracoastal Waterway and the complex network of channels that connects the sounds play a dominant role in water exchange between the adjacent estuaries.
      2016: Although the Altamaha river estuary is slightly stratified during both low and high flow, our initial assessment suggests that upstream saltwater intrusion shifts approximately 15 km seaward during high discharge conditions.
      2017: GCE nutrient data were contributed to a database that is being compiled for use by EPA in support of setting numeric nutrient criteria for coastal waters in GA/SC.
      2018: Continue the core monitoring program in the water column We compiled information on the methodologies, detection limits, and ranges observed in the GCE water quality data to help inform decisions about future nutrient sampling by the State.

      Plans:  2014: We have not yet enhanced our monitoring program due to a combination of factors: our Secchi depth order was delayed because of difficulty locating a model that could be deployed by hand yet would still be heavy enough to withstand strong currents; the pH, DIC and alkalinity sampling was postponed because the Cai lab moved from UGA to U Delaware and a senior researcher passed away; our portable CTD to be used for salinity was on loan. These issues will be addressed in the coming year.
      2015: We received supplemental funding to purchase a state-of-the-art SeapHOx instrument, which will provide continuous measures of pH that can be used to evaluate ocean acidification. The instrument also has oxygen, temperature and salinity sensors, and will be used instead of the sonde that we originally proposed to deploy. The instrument, which is being calibrated, will be installed at the mouth of the Duplin River. The final addition to the core water quality monitoring program (Secchi depth) will also be added this coming year.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We maintain sondes at 9 GCE sites (Fig. 2). We also take CTD measurements and collect and processes water samples according to the schedule in Table 1.

      Results:  Di Iorio and Castelao (2013) summarized salinity, wind, sea level and river discharge data from 2002 to 2012 and compared results to an idealized model of the GCE domain. They found that system wide freshening is dominated by river forcing, and that changes in salinity due to wind forcing causes a different response in the Altamaha River than in Doboy or Sapelo Sound. Model results indicate that the Intracoastal Waterway and the complex network of channels that connects the sounds play a dominant role in water exchange between the adjacent estuaries.

      Plans:  We have not yet enhanced our monitoring program due to a combination of factors: our Secchi depth order was delayed because of difficulty locating a model that could be deployed by hand yet would still be heavy enough to withstand strong currents; the pH, DIC and alkalinity sampling was postponed because the Cai lab moved from UGA to U Delaware and a senior researcher passed away; our portable CTD to be used for salinity was on loan. These issues will be addressed in the coming year.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We maintain sondes at 9 GCE sites (Fig. 2 ). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1. This past year we added measurements of pH, DIC and alkalinity, and began documenting salinity intrusion into the Altamaha.

      Plans:  We received supplemental funding to purchase a state-of-the-art SeapHOx instrument, which will provide continuous measures of pH that can be used to evaluate ocean acidification. The instrument also has oxygen, temperature and salinity sensors, and will be used instead of the sonde that we originally proposed to deploy. The instrument, which is being calibrated, will be installed at the mouth of the Duplin River. The final addition to the core water quality monitoring program (Secchi depth) will also be added this coming year.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We maintain sondes at 9 GCE sites (Activities Fig. 2). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1. This past year we added a SeapHOx instrument (purchased with supplemental funds), which provides continuous, highly accurate measurements of pH. The instrument is being tested at the mouth of the Duplin River.

      Results:  Although the Altamaha river estuary is slightly stratified during both low and high flow, our initial assessment suggests that upstream saltwater intrusion shifts approximately 15 km seaward during high discharge conditions.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  We continue to maintain sondes at 10 GCE sites (Fig. 2). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1.

      Results:  GCE nutrient data were contributed to a database that is being compiled for use by EPA in support of setting numeric nutrient criteria for coastal waters in GA/SC.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We continue to maintain sondes at 10 GCE sites (Fig. 4). We also take CTD measurements and water samples according to the schedule in Table 1. In March 2017 we increased nutrient sampling to monthly at all GCE sites and added 10 additional sites as part of a GA EPD project to establish numeric nutrient criteria.

      Results:  Continue the core monitoring program in the water column We compiled information on the methodologies, detection limits, and ranges observed in the GCE water quality data to help inform decisions about future nutrient sampling by the State.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  We maintain sondes that collect continuous measurements at 10 sites, and we obtain quarterly or monthly CTD profiles and measurements of nutrients, dissolved organic matter, chlorophyll and suspended sediment at 12 sites (Table 1, Fig. 2).

      Results:  We observed increased salinity in the tidal forest (GCE11) in conjunction with Hurricane Irma, and a more recent increase that corresponded to a combination of high sea surface heights and low river flow (Fig 2). We also observed large changes in DOM composition (analyzed by FT-ICR MS) and high microbial utilization of DOC in association with hurricane Matthew (Letourneau and Medeiros 2019) and are currently processing samples from hurricanes Irma, Michael, and Dorian.

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  The GCE field crew was able to continue servicing our hydrographic instruments and collecting nutrient samples throughout the COVID lockdown, and so our data streams were uninterrupted. We observed increased salinity in the tidal forest (GCE11) in conjunction with Hurricane Irma, and a more recent increase that corresponded to a combination of high sea surface heights and low river flow. In contrast, we observed low salinities throughout the GCE domain in 2020 in response to high river discharge, resulting from high rainfall in 2020.

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We maintain sondes at 10 sites and collect quarterly or monthly CTD profiles and grab samples for water quality measurements at 12 sites.

      Results:  GCE monitoring data are being used to calibrate and validate a water quality model for the GCE domain

  • 2A.2  Continue the core monitoring program in the marsh
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We monitor plant productivity and community structure, invertebrate community structure and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 2). In 2013 we expanded the monitoring to include additional plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment and replaced a corroded SET. We also continued monitoring recovery from a disturbance experiment in which wrack was added to experimental plots in each of 5 marsh vegetation zones.
      2015: We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 2) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in Yr 1. We also continued monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment.
      2016: We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Activities Fig. 2) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in Yr 1. We also continued monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment.
      2017: We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 2) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in Yr 1. We also continue monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment.
      2018: We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 4) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in 2006, and continue monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment. We have also collected 50cm sediment cores at most of the GCE core monitoring sites for analysis of organic content, carbon, age structure and grain size in order to be able to calculate longterm carbon storage at GCE sites with different plant communities and elevations.

      Results:  2014: Analysis of plot biomass data from 2000 to 2011 showed that river discharge was the most important driver of S. alterniflora ANPP at almost all GCE sites, especially in creekbank vegetation (Fig. 1). Increased river discharge reduced water column and consequently porewater salinity, and this was most likely the proximate driver of increased production. In the mid-marsh zone, river discharge and maximum temperature had similar predictive ability. In the wrack manipulation experiment we found that some effects on plant density could be seen in within 1-2 months, and if kept in place for 8 months to a year the wrack killed essentially all of the underlying vegetation (Fig. 2). Plants underneath wrack had reduced chlorophyll concentrations in comparison to plants from control plots, and Spartina alterniflora also had reduced concentrations of DMSP. Loss of plants was accompanied by a reduction in the densities of the periwinkle snail, Littoraria irrorata. Recovery from the effects of wrack disturbance is ongoing, and appears to be following an elevation gradient. After 1 year, plant densities in the three Spartina zones were at least 50% of those in control areas whereas those in the high marsh zones (Juncus and marsh meadow) were less than 5% of controls.
      2015: Wieski and Pennings (2014) completed an analysis of the influence of river discharge, local precipitation, sea level and temperature on annual variation in the biomass of Spartina alterniflora, the dominant plant in the GCE domain. (See Major Accomplishments)
      2016: An analysis of disturbances observed in our long-term monitoring data shows that different disturbances are important in different habitats. On creekbanks, wrack disturbance is common and reduces plant biomass by ~50%. Creekbanks also slump into the subtidal area, causing total vegetation loss. Neither of these processes is important in the mid-marsh, but snails occasionally are associated with loss of vegetation. A manuscript detailing these results is in preparation.
      2017: Li and Pennings (in press) analyzed disturbances in our long­term monitoring plots. They found that wrack disturbance to creekbank sites is far more common and important than previously realized, that disturbance frequency varies considerably among years, and that it is more common on barrier islands versus interior marshes.
      2018: Continue the core monitoring program in the marsh Analysis of cores from monitoring sites show sediment accumulation rates vary from 0.1-0.4 cm/y, which suggests that some areas are not keeping up with sea level rise.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plant productivity and community structure, invertebrate community structure and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 2). In 2013 we expanded the monitoring to include additional plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment and replaced a corroded SET. We also continued monitoring recovery from a disturbance experiment in which wrack was added to experimental plots in each of 5 marsh vegetation zones.

      Results:  Analysis of plot biomass data from 2000 to 2011 showed that river discharge was the most important driver of S. alterniflora ANPP at almost all GCE sites, especially in creekbank vegetation (Fig. 1). Increased river discharge reduced water column and consequently porewater salinity, and this was most likely the proximate driver of increased production. In the mid-marsh zone, river discharge and maximum temperature had similar predictive ability. In the wrack manipulation experiment we found that some effects on plant density could be seen in within 1-2 months, and if kept in place for 8 months to a year the wrack killed essentially all of the underlying vegetation (Fig. 2). Plants underneath wrack had reduced chlorophyll concentrations in comparison to plants from control plots, and Spartina alterniflora also had reduced concentrations of DMSP. Loss of plants was accompanied by a reduction in the densities of the periwinkle snail, Littoraria irrorata. Recovery from the effects of wrack disturbance is ongoing, and appears to be following an elevation gradient. After 1 year, plant densities in the three Spartina zones were at least 50% of those in control areas whereas those in the high marsh zones (Juncus and marsh meadow) were less than 5% of controls.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 2) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in Yr 1. We also continued monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment.

      Results:  Wieski and Pennings (2014) completed an analysis of the influence of river discharge, local precipitation, sea level and temperature on annual variation in the biomass of Spartina alterniflora, the dominant plant in the GCE domain. (See Major Accomplishments)

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Activities Fig. 2) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in Yr 1. We also continued monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment.

      Results:  An analysis of disturbances observed in our long-term monitoring data shows that different disturbances are important in different habitats. On creekbanks, wrack disturbance is common and reduces plant biomass by ~50%. Creekbanks also slump into the subtidal area, causing total vegetation loss. Neither of these processes is important in the mid-marsh, but snails occasionally are associated with loss of vegetation. A manuscript detailing these results is in preparation.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 2) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in Yr 1. We also continue monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment.

      Results:  Li and Pennings (in press) analyzed disturbances in our long­term monitoring plots. They found that wrack disturbance to creekbank sites is far more common and important than previously realized, that disturbance frequency varies considerably among years, and that it is more common on barrier islands versus interior marshes.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plants, invertebrates, and sediment elevation at each core site (Fig. 4) as well as plant mixtures and barnacle recruitment at sites established in 2006, and continue monitoring recovery from a wrack disturbance experiment. We have also collected 50cm sediment cores at most of the GCE core monitoring sites for analysis of organic content, carbon, age structure and grain size in order to be able to calculate longterm carbon storage at GCE sites with different plant communities and elevations.

      Results:  Continue the core monitoring program in the marsh Analysis of cores from monitoring sites show sediment accumulation rates vary from 0.1-0.4 cm/y, which suggests that some areas are not keeping up with sea level rise.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plants, invertebrates, and soils in 2 zones at each of our 10 marsh sites (Table 1, Fig. 2). In the tidal forest we measure litterfall, basal area increment, and sediment elevation, and have begun assessing vegetation cover. We are also testing biomimics to evaluate the thermal regimes experienced by macrofauna.

      Results:  Liu and Pennings (2019) used the long-term plant monitoring data to evaluate whether the “self-thinning” law applies to Spartina (see Accomplishments). We are also working on a dynamical systems analysis of Spartina biomass in response to external drivers. Preliminary results indicate the spring and preceding fall conditions are causally related to plant production.

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  We installed a horizontal looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (HADCP) to measure along-channel current flow at the mouth of the Duplin River. Data from 2019-2020 has been processed for quality control and used to estimate hourly averaged along-channel velocity (Fig. 2). The instrument has been removed due to dock renovations, and we are evaluating where and how it can be redeployed.

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  The horizontal acoustic profiler in the Duplin River was removed because the dock to which it was mounted is being replaced; we are evaluating options for re-deployment.

      Results:  Data from the horizontal acoustic profiler demonstrate consistent net outflow from the Duplin River, which suggests a southerly buoyant flow

  • 2A.3  Add a core monitoring site in tidal fresh water (yr 1-2)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We have selected a new core monitoring station on Lewis Island, which is a tidal forest area of the Altamaha River.
      2015: We established a new core monitoring station (2 0.1-ha plots) in a tidal forest area of the Altamaha River (Fig. 2, GCE 11). We are inventorying tree species and have installed dendrometer bands, litterfall traps and an RSET.
      2016: We are measuring plant productivity at the new core monitoring tidal forest site using dendrometer bands and litterfall traps. We made baseline RSET measurements and will make our first post-baseline measurements in 2016.
      2017: We are continuing to measure plant productivity at the new core monitoring tidal forest site using dendrometer bands and litterfall traps. We have also conducted nutrient (C, N, P) analyses on the litterfall samples and collected soil cores from the levee and plain of the tidal forest site to analyze for nutrient accumulation.
      2018: We continue to measure plant productivity at the core monitoring tidal forest site using dendrometer bands and litterfall traps.

      Results:  2015: Over time, saltwater intrusion converts tidal forest to brackish marsh. A comparison of the GCE tidal forest site with an area on the Darien River where saltwater intrusion is occurring showed a large reduction in woody biomass and species richness and a concomitant increase in herbaceous species (Table 1).
      2016: Annual litterfall based on our first year of data is 572 ± 37 g m-2 . These values are comparable to those in published studies of tidal forests in the southeastern US.
      2017: Annual litterfall values to date are comparable to published studies of tidal forests in the Southeastern US.
      2018: Add a core monitoring station in tidal fresh water Annual litterfall and stemwood growth values (productivity) and species composition are comparable to published studies of tidal forests in the Southeastern US. Soil accretion rates indicate that most of the nutrient accumulation occurs on the levee, not the interior, of the forest.

      Plans:  2014: We have completed the permit application to install an SET and researched construction and installation of dendrometer bands and litterfall traps for the new site. These will be installed in fall 2013 and winter 2014.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We have selected a new core monitoring station on Lewis Island, which is a tidal forest area of the Altamaha River.

      Plans:  We have completed the permit application to install an SET and researched construction and installation of dendrometer bands and litterfall traps for the new site. These will be installed in fall 2013 and winter 2014.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We established a new core monitoring station (2 0.1-ha plots) in a tidal forest area of the Altamaha River (Fig. 2, GCE 11). We are inventorying tree species and have installed dendrometer bands, litterfall traps and an RSET.

      Results:  Over time, saltwater intrusion converts tidal forest to brackish marsh. A comparison of the GCE tidal forest site with an area on the Darien River where saltwater intrusion is occurring showed a large reduction in woody biomass and species richness and a concomitant increase in herbaceous species (Table 1).

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We are measuring plant productivity at the new core monitoring tidal forest site using dendrometer bands and litterfall traps. We made baseline RSET measurements and will make our first post-baseline measurements in 2016.

      Results:  Annual litterfall based on our first year of data is 572 ± 37 g m-2 . These values are comparable to those in published studies of tidal forests in the southeastern US.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  We are continuing to measure plant productivity at the new core monitoring tidal forest site using dendrometer bands and litterfall traps. We have also conducted nutrient (C, N, P) analyses on the litterfall samples and collected soil cores from the levee and plain of the tidal forest site to analyze for nutrient accumulation.

      Results:  Annual litterfall values to date are comparable to published studies of tidal forests in the Southeastern US.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We continue to measure plant productivity at the core monitoring tidal forest site using dendrometer bands and litterfall traps.

      Results:  Add a core monitoring station in tidal fresh water Annual litterfall and stemwood growth values (productivity) and species composition are comparable to published studies of tidal forests in the Southeastern US. Soil accretion rates indicate that most of the nutrient accumulation occurs on the levee, not the interior, of the forest.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  We monitor groundwater levels and salinities at a series of wells associated with the high marsh manipulation (see 3C.2). In 2019 we installed additional wells across the upland marsh transition at Marsh Landing where we have long-term observations of vegetation shifts (Fig. 3).

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  We have taken samples of opportunity to evaluate DOM composition in association with hurricanes that affected the GA coast in recent years. Letourneau and Medeiros (2019) observed large increase in DOC concentration and in the terrigenous signature of the DOM (analyzed by FT-ICR MS) after Hurricane Matthew. One month after the passage of Hurricane Irma, Letourneau et al. (in press) observed a 27% increase in DOC content and enhanced rates of DOC biodegradation (Fig. 3), demonstrating that hurricanes can have a large impact on organic matter composition and cycling in coastal systems.

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We conducted a focused study to characterize variability in dissolved organic matter composition in Doboy Sound.

      Results:  Martineac et al. (2021) showed that the dominant pattern of variability in DOM composition occurs at seasonal scales

      Accomplishments:  What Drives DOM Composition in Estuaries?

  • 2A.4  Characterize groundwater flow into the Duplin River (yr 1-3)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We continue to monitor water levels and salinity in wells installed along an upland-to-marsh transect, and installed moisture sensors to investigate rainfall infiltration. We also conducted field excursions in March and June 2013 during which geochemical tracers (radon) and geophysical surveys (subsurface resistivity) were measured to assess groundwater input to the Duplin River.
      2015: We have collected sediment cores to constrain groundwater radon end-member activities and sediment characteristics in the Duplin.
      2016: In summer 2015 we collected continuous radon and water level data over a period of 3 weeks that is being used to constrain groundwater inputs to the Duplin River. We also collected high resolution electrical resistivity data to examine details of tidal pumping.
      2017: In summer 2016 we collected continuous radon and water level data over a period of 3 weeks. We also collected spatial surveys of these parameters during slow surveys covering the entire length of the Duplin River.
      2018: In summer 2017 we collected radon timeseries in the Duplin River as well as two representative tidal creeks over a period of 3 weeks. We also refined our analyses of the Rn time series and identified a systematic offset.

      Results:  2014: Schutte et al. (2013) identified groundwater driven patterns of nutrient concentrations in Duplin surface water, and found higher NH4 and PO4 concentrations on spring than on neap tides (Fig. 3). LeDoux et al. (2013) evaluated the forces that govern groundwater based on GCE data collected along a shallow well transect that runs from a back barrier island over a hammock and into the adjacent marsh. The propagation of pressure in the subsurface was investigated using a one-dimensional model and was found to likely only have a minor effect at the location of the well transect. Density changes were responsible for typically <10% of groundwater flow and the effect was most dominant at the hammock, but the primary forcing function appears to be tidal flushing. Alternate drivers, including precipitation events, are most evident in periods with low tidal forcing.
      2015: Based on radon data, Carter (2013) found that the highest groundwater input to the Duplin River occurs in the upper portion of the system (Fig. 2).
      2016: A manuscript is now in preparation in which we compare groundwater inputs to the Duplin River across multiple years, spanning high/low tides across the spring/neap variations.
      2017: Two manuscripts are in prep that present our methodology and compare groundwater inputs to the Duplin River across multiple years, spanning high/low tides across the spring/neap variations.
      2018: Characterize groundwater flow into the Duplin R The analysis of contemporary Rn time series allowed us to quantify the magnitude, location and timing of groundwater inputs to the Duplin River (Fig. 3).

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We continue to monitor water levels and salinity in wells installed along an upland-to-marsh transect, and installed moisture sensors to investigate rainfall infiltration. We also conducted field excursions in March and June 2013 during which geochemical tracers (radon) and geophysical surveys (subsurface resistivity) were measured to assess groundwater input to the Duplin River.

      Results:  Schutte et al. (2013) identified groundwater driven patterns of nutrient concentrations in Duplin surface water, and found higher NH4 and PO4 concentrations on spring than on neap tides (Fig. 3). LeDoux et al. (2013) evaluated the forces that govern groundwater based on GCE data collected along a shallow well transect that runs from a back barrier island over a hammock and into the adjacent marsh. The propagation of pressure in the subsurface was investigated using a one-dimensional model and was found to likely only have a minor effect at the location of the well transect. Density changes were responsible for typically <10% of groundwater flow and the effect was most dominant at the hammock, but the primary forcing function appears to be tidal flushing. Alternate drivers, including precipitation events, are most evident in periods with low tidal forcing.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We have collected sediment cores to constrain groundwater radon end-member activities and sediment characteristics in the Duplin.

      Results:  Based on radon data, Carter (2013) found that the highest groundwater input to the Duplin River occurs in the upper portion of the system (Fig. 2).

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  In summer 2015 we collected continuous radon and water level data over a period of 3 weeks that is being used to constrain groundwater inputs to the Duplin River. We also collected high resolution electrical resistivity data to examine details of tidal pumping.

      Results:  A manuscript is now in preparation in which we compare groundwater inputs to the Duplin River across multiple years, spanning high/low tides across the spring/neap variations.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  In summer 2016 we collected continuous radon and water level data over a period of 3 weeks. We also collected spatial surveys of these parameters during slow surveys covering the entire length of the Duplin River.

      Results:  Two manuscripts are in prep that present our methodology and compare groundwater inputs to the Duplin River across multiple years, spanning high/low tides across the spring/neap variations.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  In summer 2017 we collected radon timeseries in the Duplin River as well as two representative tidal creeks over a period of 3 weeks. We also refined our analyses of the Rn time series and identified a systematic offset.

      Results:  Characterize groundwater flow into the Duplin R The analysis of contemporary Rn time series allowed us to quantify the magnitude, location and timing of groundwater inputs to the Duplin River (Fig. 3).

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  Our annual fall monitoring is also on track and was not interrupted by COVID. We also measured winter soil temperatures (which may be important for S. alterniflora phenology) at each of our core monitoring sites in 2019-2020 to evaluate variation among sites and marsh zones (see key findings). We are also using biomimics to evaluate how the thermal regimes experienced by macrofauna varies as a function of marsh elevation and organism location (e.g., buried in the soil vs. on the soil surface vs. in the plant canopy) (Fig. 4). The long-term plant data were used for two recent analyses: Liu and Pennings (2019) evaluated whether the “self-thinning” law applies to S. alterniflora (see key findings), and Liu and Pennings (2020) evaluated synchrony in plant production across multiple sites and two elevation zones (Fig. 5). They found the highest degree of synchrony of production within a species and within a zone, and no asynchrony that might allow one species to compensate for another during “bad” years.

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We monitor plants, invertebrates and soils in 2 zones at each of our 10 marsh sites and the tidal fresh forest (Table 1, Fig. 4). This past year we replaced SETs at sites 4 and 6, which failed after 20 years. We also monitor vegetation dynamics along the salinity gradient of the Altamaha River estuary (see Obj. 4B1).

      Results:  Adams et al. (2021) analyzed 20 years of data on salt marsh katydid densities at the GCE sites. They found much higher densities of Orchemlium fidicinium at sites with extensive adjacent upland, which may provide habitat for reproduction or escape from predators during extreme high tides.

  • 2A.5  Assess seasonal dynamics of ammonium oxidizing archaea (yr 1-2)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We collected weekly water samples at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island for measurements of AOA, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and DIN.
      2015: We collected weekly water samples at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island for measurements of AOA, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and DIN.
      2016: We continue to collect weekly water samples at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island for measurements of AOA, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and DIN.
      2017: Completed yr 3.
      2018: Completed yr 3.

      Results:  2014: Hollibaugh et al. (2013) documented a consistent summer peak in ammonia-oxidizing archaea that correlates with a peak in DIN, suggesting a temporary uncoupling in the nitrogen cycle. Hollibaugh has received funding from NSF to follow up on the geochemical consequences of these observations.
      2016: Tolar et al. (submitted) analyzed data on the population dynamics of AOA collected since 2008 and found pronounced mid-summer blooms that affect the composition of DIN and coincide with a variety of factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH) associated with the summer increase in net ecosystem heterotrophy.
      2017: Tolar et al. (2016) found that ammonia oxidation rates were always higher than oxidation rates of urea¬derived N in samples from the GCE, in contrast to those from the Gulf of Alaska. They suggest that the contribution of urea¬derived N to nitrification is minor in temperate coastal waters but may represent a significant portion of the nitrification flux in colder waters.
      2018: Assess seasonal dynamics of ammonium oxidizing archaea Whitby et al. (2017) evaluated the seasonal cycle of copper speciation in comparison to the annually occurring bloom of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea (AOA), which require copper for many enzymes. Free copper was in very low concentrations, and they conclude that the AOA are able to access thiolbound copper directly.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We collected weekly water samples at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island for measurements of AOA, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and DIN.

      Results:  Hollibaugh et al. (2013) documented a consistent summer peak in ammonia-oxidizing archaea that correlates with a peak in DIN, suggesting a temporary uncoupling in the nitrogen cycle. Hollibaugh has received funding from NSF to follow up on the geochemical consequences of these observations.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We collected weekly water samples at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island for measurements of AOA, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and DIN.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We continue to collect weekly water samples at Marsh Landing on Sapelo Island for measurements of AOA, ammonia and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and DIN.

      Results:  Tolar et al. (submitted) analyzed data on the population dynamics of AOA collected since 2008 and found pronounced mid-summer blooms that affect the composition of DIN and coincide with a variety of factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH) associated with the summer increase in net ecosystem heterotrophy.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  Completed yr 3.

      Results:  Tolar et al. (2016) found that ammonia oxidation rates were always higher than oxidation rates of urea¬derived N in samples from the GCE, in contrast to those from the Gulf of Alaska. They suggest that the contribution of urea¬derived N to nitrification is minor in temperate coastal waters but may represent a significant portion of the nitrification flux in colder waters.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  Completed yr 3.

      Results:  Assess seasonal dynamics of ammonium oxidizing archaea Whitby et al. (2017) evaluated the seasonal cycle of copper speciation in comparison to the annually occurring bloom of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea (AOA), which require copper for many enzymes. Free copper was in very low concentrations, and they conclude that the AOA are able to access thiolbound copper directly.

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  We monitor groundwater levels and salinities at a series of wells associated with the high marsh manipulation. In 2019 we installed additional wells across the upland marsh transition at Marsh Landing where we have long-term observations of vegetation shifts. We are currently using this data to calibrate a groundwater model to hindcast hydrologic conditions coincident with changes in plant zonation (Fig. 6).

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We monitor groundwater at a series of wells associated with the high marsh manipulation and at the upland-marsh transition at Marsh Landing. We are also evaluating groundwater patterns across Sapelo Island using water level observations in ponds.

      Results:  We constructed a 2-D variable-density groundwater flow model based on the Marsh Landing site (Sanders 2021), which is currently being refined to improve the match between simulated and observed hydraulic head and groundwater salinity.

  • 2A.6  Assess seasonal dynamics of blue crabs (yr 3-6)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We are in the process of selecting sites and obtaining permits to monitor seasonal abundance of blue crabs.
      2015: We began weekly monitoring of blue crab abundance in 2 tidal creeks. We are also obtaining data on commercial catch in major channels.
      2016: We ended the blue crab monitoring in the marsh in 2015 because it was too labor intensive to justify the limited data collected.
      2017: We ended the blue crab monitoring in the marsh in 2015 because it was too labor intensive to justify the limited data collected.
      2018: We ended the blue crab monitoring in the marsh in 2015 because it was too labor intensive to justify the limited data collected.

      Results:  2015: Nifong and Silliman (2013) found that blue crabs are a frequent component of the diets of alligators that live in estuaries. The presence of alligators reduced blue crab abundance through predation and influenced blue crab behavior, resulting in reduced foraging. This translated to increased survival of periwinkles and ribbed mussels, and demonstrates the cascading effects of an apex predator through the salt marsh food web.
      2016: We analyzed long term fishery-independent data collected by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and found that the number of crabs per trawl was reduced at high salinities. A manuscript is now in preparation.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We are in the process of selecting sites and obtaining permits to monitor seasonal abundance of blue crabs.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We began weekly monitoring of blue crab abundance in 2 tidal creeks. We are also obtaining data on commercial catch in major channels.

      Results:  Nifong and Silliman (2013) found that blue crabs are a frequent component of the diets of alligators that live in estuaries. The presence of alligators reduced blue crab abundance through predation and influenced blue crab behavior, resulting in reduced foraging. This translated to increased survival of periwinkles and ribbed mussels, and demonstrates the cascading effects of an apex predator through the salt marsh food web.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We ended the blue crab monitoring in the marsh in 2015 because it was too labor intensive to justify the limited data collected.

      Results:  We analyzed long term fishery-independent data collected by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources and found that the number of crabs per trawl was reduced at high salinities. A manuscript is now in preparation.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  We ended the blue crab monitoring in the marsh in 2015 because it was too labor intensive to justify the limited data collected.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We ended the blue crab monitoring in the marsh in 2015 because it was too labor intensive to justify the limited data collected.

  • 2A.7  Characterize DOM composition and predominant sources of estuarine water (yr 1-3)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: Altamaha River water was sampled over 3 seasons for DOM characterization.
      2015: We collected DOM samples from the GCE domain and analyzed their organic composition with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.
      2016: We collected DOM samples from the GCE domain (Altamaha River, Doboy and Sapelo Sounds) and analyzed their organic composition using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Dark incubations spanning from 24 hours to 70 days were conducted to assess lability of organic matter at those sites.
      2017: We have been collecting monthly DOM samples from the Altamaha River and Sapelo Sound since Sept. 2015. Dark incubations spanning from 24 hours to 80 days are being conducted to assess how changes in river discharge/hydrology influence lability of organic matter at those sites over a year.
      2018: DOM samples collected from the Altamaha River and Sapelo Sound from Sep. 2015 to Sep. 2016 were analyzed using bulk (DOC), optics (CDOM) and molecular (FTICR MS; ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry) techniques for the characterization of changes in composition due to river discharge and biodegradation.

      Results:  2015: Preliminary results indicate that interannual variability in river discharge plays a dominant role in controlling DOM composition variability in the system. During drought conditions, the influence of marsh-derived organic matter imprints a clear signature in the estuarine DOM.
      2016: Medeiros et al. (2015) describes our findings that interannual variability in river discharge plays a dominant role in controlling DOM composition variability. During drought conditions, the influence of marsh-derived organic matter imprinted a clear signature on the riverine DOM. (Results Fig. 3)
      2017: Data from the 4 GCE research cruises in 2014 were used to evaluate the export of terrigenous DOM in the South Atlantic Bight (Fig. 4).
      2018: Characterize DOM composition and predominant sources of estuarine water Initial results show that increased river discharge resulted in higher DOC concentrations and increased average molecular size and aromaticity (Fig. 4), indicating higher inputs of terrestrial DOM at both sampling locations.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  Altamaha River water was sampled over 3 seasons for DOM characterization.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We collected DOM samples from the GCE domain and analyzed their organic composition with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

      Results:  Preliminary results indicate that interannual variability in river discharge plays a dominant role in controlling DOM composition variability in the system. During drought conditions, the influence of marsh-derived organic matter imprints a clear signature in the estuarine DOM.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We collected DOM samples from the GCE domain (Altamaha River, Doboy and Sapelo Sounds) and analyzed their organic composition using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Dark incubations spanning from 24 hours to 70 days were conducted to assess lability of organic matter at those sites.

      Results:  Medeiros et al. (2015) describes our findings that interannual variability in river discharge plays a dominant role in controlling DOM composition variability. During drought conditions, the influence of marsh-derived organic matter imprinted a clear signature on the riverine DOM. (Results Fig. 3)

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  We have been collecting monthly DOM samples from the Altamaha River and Sapelo Sound since Sept. 2015. Dark incubations spanning from 24 hours to 80 days are being conducted to assess how changes in river discharge/hydrology influence lability of organic matter at those sites over a year.

      Results:  Data from the 4 GCE research cruises in 2014 were used to evaluate the export of terrigenous DOM in the South Atlantic Bight (Fig. 4).

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  DOM samples collected from the Altamaha River and Sapelo Sound from Sep. 2015 to Sep. 2016 were analyzed using bulk (DOC), optics (CDOM) and molecular (FTICR MS; ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry) techniques for the characterization of changes in composition due to river discharge and biodegradation.

      Results:  Characterize DOM composition and predominant sources of estuarine water Initial results show that increased river discharge resulted in higher DOC concentrations and increased average molecular size and aromaticity (Fig. 4), indicating higher inputs of terrestrial DOM at both sampling locations.

  • 2B.1  Create high resolution maps of site bathymetry and habitat distribution (yr 1-6)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We conducted multibeam bathymetry mapping in the Duplin River during March 2013, allowing us to expand the mapped domain and compare with previous observations.
      2015: We collected high resolution imagery of a portion of the domain that can be compared with a Dec 2012 flyover by the Georgia coastal imagery consortium. We also conducted bathymetric surveys of tidal creeks to improve our DEM of the Duplin watershed.
      2016: We collected new high-resolution imagery of a portion of the domain that can be compared with Dec 2012 and 2013 flyovers by the Georgia coastal imagery consortium and the GCE. We also completed sampling the tidal creeks of the Duplin River with a high resolution echo sounder and have merged these data with swath multi beam and LIDAR data to provide a high resolution DEM for our modeling efforts.
      2017: A high resolution DEM of the GCE has been completed and is now in use in our modeling efforts.
      2018: We are currently mapping the shallow bathymetry of Sapelo Sound with interferometric side scan sonar, which will provide improved bathymetric data for modeling efforts. We also continue regular high resolution aerial flights of the domain.

      Results:  2014: Analysis of data collected in 2009 and 2013 in the Duplin revealed areas that have gained or lost up to two meters of sediment (Fig. 4). The largest changes near the confluence of the main channel and Barn creek and the confluence of the Duplin and Doboy Sound. Hladik et al (2013) developed a method to overcome the respective limitations of LIDAR and hyperspectral imagery through the use of multisensor data. A decision tree that considered elevation ranges as well as normalized difference vegetation index in combination with hyperspectral information allowed us to produce both an accurate DEM as well as an improved habitat classification for the marshes on the Duplin River.
      2015: Analysis of bathymetric and backscatter intensity data suggest differences in sediment type or variability in seafloor hardness along the Duplin. We are working to apply a computer automated bottom classification scheme to these observations, which will be presented at the 2014 American Geophysical Union meeting.
      2016: Multibeam bathymetry data were analyzed for bedform asymmetry and elevation change. Bedform asymmetry indicates ebb dominated sediment transport from the river mouth up to a highly sinuous river channel reach where bed forms switch to flood dominated.
      2018: Create high resolution maps of site bathymetry and habitat distribution We are using aerial photography to map the location of wrack disturbance in the marsh. Although it is highly variable from year to year, there are some areas where it is found repeatedly because of prevailing winds.

      Plans:  2014: Create high resolution maps of site bathymetry and habitat distribution. The Georgia coastal imagery consortium acquired high resolution aerial photography of the site in December 2012. These data will be available in December 2013.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We conducted multibeam bathymetry mapping in the Duplin River during March 2013, allowing us to expand the mapped domain and compare with previous observations.

      Results:  Analysis of data collected in 2009 and 2013 in the Duplin revealed areas that have gained or lost up to two meters of sediment (Fig. 4). The largest changes near the confluence of the main channel and Barn creek and the confluence of the Duplin and Doboy Sound. Hladik et al (2013) developed a method to overcome the respective limitations of LIDAR and hyperspectral imagery through the use of multisensor data. A decision tree that considered elevation ranges as well as normalized difference vegetation index in combination with hyperspectral information allowed us to produce both an accurate DEM as well as an improved habitat classification for the marshes on the Duplin River.

      Plans:  Create high resolution maps of site bathymetry and habitat distribution. The Georgia coastal imagery consortium acquired high resolution aerial photography of the site in December 2012. These data will be available in December 2013.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We collected high resolution imagery of a portion of the domain that can be compared with a Dec 2012 flyover by the Georgia coastal imagery consortium. We also conducted bathymetric surveys of tidal creeks to improve our DEM of the Duplin watershed.

      Results:  Analysis of bathymetric and backscatter intensity data suggest differences in sediment type or variability in seafloor hardness along the Duplin. We are working to apply a computer automated bottom classification scheme to these observations, which will be presented at the 2014 American Geophysical Union meeting.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We collected new high-resolution imagery of a portion of the domain that can be compared with Dec 2012 and 2013 flyovers by the Georgia coastal imagery consortium and the GCE. We also completed sampling the tidal creeks of the Duplin River with a high resolution echo sounder and have merged these data with swath multi beam and LIDAR data to provide a high resolution DEM for our modeling efforts.

      Results:  Multibeam bathymetry data were analyzed for bedform asymmetry and elevation change. Bedform asymmetry indicates ebb dominated sediment transport from the river mouth up to a highly sinuous river channel reach where bed forms switch to flood dominated.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  A high resolution DEM of the GCE has been completed and is now in use in our modeling efforts.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We are currently mapping the shallow bathymetry of Sapelo Sound with interferometric side scan sonar, which will provide improved bathymetric data for modeling efforts. We also continue regular high resolution aerial flights of the domain.

      Results:  Create high resolution maps of site bathymetry and habitat distribution We are using aerial photography to map the location of wrack disturbance in the marsh. Although it is highly variable from year to year, there are some areas where it is found repeatedly because of prevailing winds.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  The GCESapelo Phenocam, which is focused on a Spartina marsh, contributes data to the national phenocam network every 30 min. We are scouting locations for a second camera with both Spartina and Juncus in its field of view.

      Results:  O’Connell et al. (2019) analyzed Phenocam imagery to develop a spring warm-up model for Spartina that suggests long-term changes in the date of green-up onset (Fig. 3, see also Accomplishments).

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  The GCESapelo Phenocam, which is focused on a Spartina marsh, contributes data (a 4-band digital image) to the National Phenocam Network every 30 min. We are now in the process of setting up a second Phenocam with both S. alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus in its field of view. O’Connell et al. (2020) used the first 4 years of Phenocam imagery to develop a spring warm-up model for S. alterniflora. The model was then used to hindcast an almost 11-day advance in green-up onset since 1958 (Fig. 7).

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We continue to maintain the “GCESapelo” Phenocam, which focuses on a Spartina marsh. This year we identified a site for a “GCEJuncus” camera, began field observations, and set up temperature and water level sensors.

      Results:  Narron et al. (submitted) leveraged the multi-year archive of PhenoCam observations to develop an algorithm that detects flooding in Landsat imagery

      Accomplishments:  Tools for Tidal Filtering of Remote Sensing Imagery

  • 2B.2  Assess patterns of marsh productivity using satellite imagery (yr 1-6)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We have obtained ~ 300 Landsat 5 TM satellite images covering the GCE domain and selected images for analysis that cover every 2 months from May 1984 to Nov 2011. These are currently being orthorectified and atmospherically corrected in order to compare several vegetation indices (e.g. NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI 2) against plot-based estimates of plant biomass.
      2015: We are using Landsat images to evaluate vegetation patterns. We developed filters for tidal stage and atmospheric conditions and a rigorous processing scheme, and now have ~ 500 images that cover the past 3 decades.
      2016: We used Landsat 5 TM images to evaluate patterns in S. alterniflora productivity over the last 3 decades. We developed filters for tidal stage and atmospheric conditions, and used an NDVI-based algorithm to extract information from a set of 294 images spanning 1984-2011.
      2017: We completed our analysis of S. alterniflora in the GCE domain over the last 3 decades based on Landsat 5 TM images spanning the entire length of the satellite's operation (1984­2011).
      2018: We developed the Tidal Marsh Inundation Index (TMII) which can be used with MODIS imagery as part of a remote sensing workflow to identify flooded pixels in tidal marshes.

      Results:  2015: We are examining relationships between hydrologic and climatologic indices and various vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT imagery (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI 2, etc.). We have documented strong correlations between Palmer Drought Index (3 and 6 month averages) and scene-averaged size classes of Spartina and Juncus (r2 values above 0.6).
      2016: An underlying annual phenological cycle of Spartina biomass was observed, along with substantial size class dependent, seasonal and inter-annual variations. Spartina biomass was correlated with river discharge, tide stage, and Palmer Drought Index. These results are consistent with, and extend back in time, similar analyses based on sampling permanent plots.
      2017: O'Donnell and Schalles (2016) found significant decreases in S. alterniflora biomass over time (Fig 5), which correlated with factors such as drought, temperature, and sea level.
      2018: Assess patterns of marsh productivity using satellite imagery O'Connell et al. (in press) applied the newly developed Tidal Marsh Inundation Index to marsh pixels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts (including both GCE and PIE LTER sites), and found that preprocessing can improve estimation of vegetation phenology.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We have obtained ~ 300 Landsat 5 TM satellite images covering the GCE domain and selected images for analysis that cover every 2 months from May 1984 to Nov 2011. These are currently being orthorectified and atmospherically corrected in order to compare several vegetation indices (e.g. NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI 2) against plot-based estimates of plant biomass.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  We are using Landsat images to evaluate vegetation patterns. We developed filters for tidal stage and atmospheric conditions and a rigorous processing scheme, and now have ~ 500 images that cover the past 3 decades.

      Results:  We are examining relationships between hydrologic and climatologic indices and various vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT imagery (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI 2, etc.). We have documented strong correlations between Palmer Drought Index (3 and 6 month averages) and scene-averaged size classes of Spartina and Juncus (r2 values above 0.6).

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We used Landsat 5 TM images to evaluate patterns in S. alterniflora productivity over the last 3 decades. We developed filters for tidal stage and atmospheric conditions, and used an NDVI-based algorithm to extract information from a set of 294 images spanning 1984-2011.

      Results:  An underlying annual phenological cycle of Spartina biomass was observed, along with substantial size class dependent, seasonal and inter-annual variations. Spartina biomass was correlated with river discharge, tide stage, and Palmer Drought Index. These results are consistent with, and extend back in time, similar analyses based on sampling permanent plots.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  We completed our analysis of S. alterniflora in the GCE domain over the last 3 decades based on Landsat 5 TM images spanning the entire length of the satellite's operation (1984­2011).

      Results:  O'Donnell and Schalles (2016) found significant decreases in S. alterniflora biomass over time (Fig 5), which correlated with factors such as drought, temperature, and sea level.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We developed the Tidal Marsh Inundation Index (TMII) which can be used with MODIS imagery as part of a remote sensing workflow to identify flooded pixels in tidal marshes.

      Results:  Assess patterns of marsh productivity using satellite imagery O'Connell et al. (in press) applied the newly developed Tidal Marsh Inundation Index to marsh pixels on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts (including both GCE and PIE LTER sites), and found that preprocessing can improve estimation of vegetation phenology.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  Aerial photography was taken in 2017 and 2018 with funds from a RAPID grant related to Hurricane Irma.

    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  We collect periodic high-resolution aerial photographs (georeferenced, 15 cm resolution, in 4-band color/NIR) of the Altamaha Sound and Duplin River that we use to evaluate shifts in creek morphology, marsh area, shoreline armoring, and marsh habitats over time. Aerial photography was taken in 2017 and 2018 with funds from a RAPID grant related to Hurricane Irma, and we are planning another flyover this coming year.

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We use aerial photographs of the domain to evaluate patterns in creek configuration, creekbank slumping, shoreline armoring, and shifts in tidal marsh distribution.

      Results:  High resolution orthoimagery of the GCE domain was used in delineating and training image classifiers in support of Objectives 2B.4 and 4B.1.

  • 2B.3  Remote Sensing - Establish drone surveys of selected sites
    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  We acquired a Matrice 200 drone with a Micasense RedEdge Altum camera and obtained appropriate permits and FAA licenses. We are using the drone to conduct monthly flyovers of selected marshes to track disturbances over time (see Area 4). We have also begun annual drone flights of three areas to evaluate transitional areas associated with vegetation shifts in the high marsh and are in the process of selecting areas where we will use regular drone flights to evaluate creek disturbance.

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  NULLWe are using the drone to conduct monthly flyovers of selected marshes to track disturbances (see Area 4A). We have also added an annual survey of high marsh transitional areas.

      Results:  Monthly drone imagery is revealing high resolution patterns of Spartina biomass (Fig. 4) (See also Obj. 4A4).

  • 2B.4  Remote Sensing - Make use of satellite imagery to scale up observations
    • 2020 report:

      Activities:  We are explicitly using satellite imagery to evaluate habitat transitions and disturbance in Area 4. However, we also make use of satellite-based remote sensing to scale up our observations for many aspects of the project. O’Connell et al. (2020) used Phenocam imagery to groundtruth a model for MODIS that detects marsh flooding and developed an algorithm to filter these observations when assessing plant dynamics. Narron et al. (in prep) have developed a similar model for Landsat8, which shows how flooding patterns vary over both space and time at a much higher resolution than MODIS (Fig. 8). O’Donnell and Schalles used Landsat5 data to evaluate productivity trends over 28 years (ground-truthed with GCE core monitoring data), and this work is now being extended to Landsat8 and Sentinel 2. We are also investigating whether we can scale up our estimates of S. alterniflora biomass from drone imagery to MODIS observations, which have a coarser pixel size but much more extensive temporal and spatial coverage (Fig. 9).

    • 2021 report:

      Activities:  We are using salinity data collected by the sondes to develop tools to predict sea surface salinity from the Sentinel-2 satellite. We are also using satellites to aid in habitat classification (Obj. 4B1) and to track Spartina biomass at large spatial scales.

      Results:  Biomass estimates derived from Sentinel 2 show strong coherence across the Georgia coast and are similar to estimates derived from Landsat.

  • 2C.1  Implement FVCOM in the Duplin River (yr 1-3)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: We have created a modeling mesh of the Duplin watershed, which ranges in resolution from 6 m in the small tidal creeks to 100 m at the open boundary in Doboy Sound, and conducted initial runs of FVCOM.
      2015: The 3D hydrodynamic FVCOM model for the Duplin River watershed is currently running for 30 days with a 0.5 s time step, with tide, temperature and salinity forcing on the open boundary.
      2016: We have the 3D hydrodynamic FVCOM 3.2.2 model running for the Duplin River. This past year we have added groundwater discharge and begun to calculate transport processes, residence time, and the effects that groundwater discharge will have on these parameters
      2017: A high resolution, 3D, hydrodynamic model (FVCOM 3.2.2) is now running for the Duplin River. A Eulerian salt flux analysis was carried out to study advection and dispersion on transport processes and a Lagrangian particle tracking study was carried out to evaluate residence time under different conditions.
      2018: We have merged the Duplin DEM with LIDAR data for the coast, providing an integrated mesh with higher resolution around the Duplin River. We expect this to increase the robustness of the results in the Duplin River, since the dependence on open boundary conditions will be reduced.

      Results:  2016: Groundwater discharge introduces freshwater into the upper section of the Duplin, resulting in a decrease in salinity of approximately 1 compared to model runs without groundwater (Results Fig. 4). This freshwater contributes to the net outflow of the Duplin.
      2017: The model does well at predicting tidal oscillations and subtidal sea surface height and salinity variations. Residual flux dominates transport within the system and tidal flux dominates horizontal dispersion. Particle tracking analysis shows that residence time varies with tide, river flow, and sea surface height (Fig. 6).

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  We have created a modeling mesh of the Duplin watershed, which ranges in resolution from 6 m in the small tidal creeks to 100 m at the open boundary in Doboy Sound, and conducted initial runs of FVCOM.

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  The 3D hydrodynamic FVCOM model for the Duplin River watershed is currently running for 30 days with a 0.5 s time step, with tide, temperature and salinity forcing on the open boundary.

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  We have the 3D hydrodynamic FVCOM 3.2.2 model running for the Duplin River. This past year we have added groundwater discharge and begun to calculate transport processes, residence time, and the effects that groundwater discharge will have on these parameters

      Results:  Groundwater discharge introduces freshwater into the upper section of the Duplin, resulting in a decrease in salinity of approximately 1 compared to model runs without groundwater (Results Fig. 4). This freshwater contributes to the net outflow of the Duplin.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  A high resolution, 3D, hydrodynamic model (FVCOM 3.2.2) is now running for the Duplin River. A Eulerian salt flux analysis was carried out to study advection and dispersion on transport processes and a Lagrangian particle tracking study was carried out to evaluate residence time under different conditions.

      Results:  The model does well at predicting tidal oscillations and subtidal sea surface height and salinity variations. Residual flux dominates transport within the system and tidal flux dominates horizontal dispersion. Particle tracking analysis shows that residence time varies with tide, river flow, and sea surface height (Fig. 6).

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We have merged the Duplin DEM with LIDAR data for the coast, providing an integrated mesh with higher resolution around the Duplin River. We expect this to increase the robustness of the results in the Duplin River, since the dependence on open boundary conditions will be reduced.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  We have recently switched to Delft3D (from FVCOM) because of the added flexibility and additional functions available.

  • 2C.2  Implement FVCOM in the larger GCE domain (yr 4-6)
    • 2 report:

      Activities:  2014: Initial runs of FVCOM suggest a recirculation in the upper Duplin creek and marsh complex (Fig 5).
      2015: FVCOM has also been implemented in the GCE domain and is currently being validated using the salinity time series at multiple sondes collected as part of the LTER program.
      2016: FVCOM has also been implemented in the GCE domain. The past year we completed an extensive validation using the LTER salinity time series and implemented computer codes to compute residence time and connectivity between the multiple channels in the estuarine complex.
      2017: FVCOM has also been implemented in the GCE domain and extensively validated against observations from GCE research cruises.
      2018: We have upgraded both the Duplin and domainlevel models to FVCOM4. We are now extending model simulations to 2016 and 2017.

      Results:  2015: Model runs for 2008 show the effects of river discharge and wind forcing on surface salinity over the course of the year, with lower salinities in the estuary during times of high discharge, which get transported either northward or southward depending on the wind (Fig 3).
      2016: Model runs from 2012-2014 capture the transition from a severe drought to a high discharge condition. We are currently investigating the estuarine response to this shift.
      2017: We used FVCOM to quantify residence time in the different parts of the GCE domain and found striking differences along salinity gradients and between sounds (Fig. 7). See Major Accomplishments.

    • 2013 report:

      Activities:  Initial runs of FVCOM suggest a recirculation in the upper Duplin creek and marsh complex (Fig 5).

    • 2014 report:

      Activities:  FVCOM has also been implemented in the GCE domain and is currently being validated using the salinity time series at multiple sondes collected as part of the LTER program.

      Results:  Model runs for 2008 show the effects of river discharge and wind forcing on surface salinity over the course of the year, with lower salinities in the estuary during times of high discharge, which get transported either northward or southward depending on the wind (Fig 3).

    • 2015 report:

      Activities:  FVCOM has also been implemented in the GCE domain. The past year we completed an extensive validation using the LTER salinity time series and implemented computer codes to compute residence time and connectivity between the multiple channels in the estuarine complex.

      Results:  Model runs from 2012-2014 capture the transition from a severe drought to a high discharge condition. We are currently investigating the estuarine response to this shift.

    • 2016 report:

      Activities:  FVCOM has also been implemented in the GCE domain and extensively validated against observations from GCE research cruises.

      Results:  We used FVCOM to quantify residence time in the different parts of the GCE domain and found striking differences along salinity gradients and between sounds (Fig. 7). See Major Accomplishments.

    • 2017 report:

      Activities:  We have upgraded both the Duplin and domainlevel models to FVCOM4. We are now extending model simulations to 2016 and 2017.

    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  Our soil model (Miklesh & Meile 2018) predicts porewater salinity based on hydrology and evapotranspiration, and we are working to incorporate soil temperature.

  • 2C.3  Modeling - Spartina mechanistic model
    • 2019 report:

      Activities:  We are gathering data on soil temperature, above- and below-ground biomass, and NPP that can be used to enhance Spartina models.

Research Projects by Objective

2A. Field Monitoring of Water and Marsh Attributes at our Core Monitoring Sites

1. Continue the core monitoring program in the water column

Altamaha river water chemistry monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2000)
principal investigator(s): Samantha B. Joye

1. Continue the GCE core monitoring program in the water column

GCE CTD monitoring surveys
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2001)
principal investigator(s): Daniela Di Iorio, Samantha B. Joye

GCE Long-term Hydrographic Monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2001)
principal investigator(s): Daniela Di Iorio

GCE water quality monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2001)
principal investigator(s): Samantha B. Joye

Salinity variations across the GCE domain
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2006)
principal investigator(s): Daniela Di Iorio

2. Continue the core monitoring program in the marsh

Effect of rainfall variation on high marsh plants
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 1996)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

GCE LTER Sedimentation-Erosion Table (SET) Monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2001)
principal investigator(s): Christopher B. Craft

GCE-LTER Altamaha River plant community monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2012)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

Grasshopper distribution within the GCE
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2001)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

High marsh annual monitoring of Borrichia Juncus mixtures
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2013)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

Marine invertebrate monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2000)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

Plant biomass monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2000)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

Terrestrial invertebrate monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2000)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

3. Add a core monitoring station in tidal fresh water

Effects of Nutrients and Salinity on Soil Organic Matter
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2014 to 2015
principal investigator(s): Christopher B. Craft

4. Characterize groundwater flow into the Duplin River

CCU Groundwater and mapping trip - Spring 2013
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2013 to 2013
principal investigator(s): Richard N. Peterson

CCU groundwater and resistivity study - Summer 2013
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2013 to 2013
principal investigator(s): Richard F. Viso

CCU groundwater and resistivity study - Winter 2013
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2013 to 2013
principal investigator(s): Richard N. Peterson

Creek bank seepage fluxes
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: 2012 to 2013
principal investigator(s): Christof Meile

5. Assess seasonal dynamics of ammonium oxidizing Archaea

Ammonia oxidation in the GCE domain
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2004)
principal investigator(s): James T. Hollibaugh

6. Assess seasonal dynamics of blue crabs

Blue crab monitoring
description: GCE web page, plain web page
date range: ongoing (since 2013)
principal investigator(s): Steven C. Pennings

Outcomes Figures and Tables

2013 Activities Figure 2

2013 Activities Figure  2

2013 Activities Table 1

2013 Activities Table 1

2014 Activities Figure 2

2014 Activities Figure 2

2013 Results Figure 1

2013 Results Figure  1

2013 Results Figure 2

2013 Results Figure  2

2014 Results Table 1

2014 Results Table 1

2013 Results Figure 3

2013 Results Figure  3

2014 Results Figure 2

2014 Results Figure 2

2013 Results Figure 4

2013 Results Figure  4

2013 Outcomes Figure 2

2013 Outcomes Figure  2

2014 Results Figure 3

2014 Results Figure 3

2013 Results Figure 5

2013 Results Figure  5

Literature Cited in Outcomes

Carter, M., Viso, R.F., Peterson, R.N. and Hill, J. C. 2013. Poster: Tidal Pumping as a Driver of Groundwater Discharge to a Back Barrier Salt Marsh Ecosystem. Hydrologic Controls on Biogeochemical and Ecosystem Processes at the Land-Sea Interface III. 2013 AGU Fall Meeting, 9-13 December, 2013, San Francisco.

Di Iorio, D. and Castelao, R. 2013. The Dynamical Response of Salinity to Freshwater Discharge and Wind Forcing in Adjacent Estuaries on the Georgia Coast. Special Issue: Coastal Long Term Ecological Research. Oceanography. 26(3):44–51. (DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2013.44)

Hladik, C.M., Schalles, J.F. and Alber, M. 2013. Salt marsh elevation and habitat mapping using hyperspectral and LIDAR data. Remote Sensing of the Environment. 139:318 - 330. (DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2013.08.003)

Hollibaugh, J.T., Gifford, S., Moran, M.A., Ross, M., Sharma, S. and Tolar, B. 2014. Seasonal variation in the metratranscriptomes of a Thaumarchaeota population from SE USA coastal waters. ISME Journal. 8:685 - 698. (DOI: 10.1038/ismej.2013.171)

Ledoux, J.G., Alexander, C.R. Jr. and Meile, C. 2013. Delineating the drivers of groundwater flow at a Back Barrier island – marsh Transect in coastal Georgia. In: Georgia Water Resources Conference, April 10-11, 2013 in Athens GA.

Nifong, J.C. and Silliman, B.R. 2013. Impacts of a large-bodied, apex predator (Alligator mississippiensis Daudin 1801) on salt marsh food webs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 440(2013):185-191. (DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2013.01.002)

Schalles, J.F., Hladik, C.M., Lynes, A.R. and Pennings, S.C. 2013. Landscape estimates of habitat types, plant biomass, and invertebrate densities in a Georgia salt marsh. Special Issue: Coastal Long Term Ecological Research. Oceanography. 26:88-97. (DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2013.50)

Schutte, C., Hunter, K.S., McKay, P., Di Iorio, D., Joye, S.B. and Meile, C. 2013. Patterns and controls of nutrient concentrations in a southeastern United States tidal creek. Special Issue: Coastal Long Term Ecological Research. Oceanography. 26(3):12-139. (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.55)

Wieski, K. and Pennings, S.C. 2014. Climate Drivers of Spartina alterniflora Saltmarsh Production in Georgia, USA. Ecosystems. 17(3):473-484. (DOI: 10.1007/s10021-013-9732-6)

All Related Publications

Journal Articles

Lehmann, M.K., Gurlin, D., Pahlevan, N., Binding, C., Fichot, C., Gitelson, A., Mishra, D., Schalles, J.F., Simis, S., Smith, B. and Spyrakos, E. 2023. GLORIA - A globally representative hyperspectral in situ dataset for optical sensing of water quality. Nature - Scientific Data. 10:1130958, 6 April 2023(100 (2023)):13 p. (DOI: doi.org/10.1038/s41597-023-01973-y)

Liu, W. and Pennings, S.C. 2021. Variation in synchrony of production among species, sites and intertidal zones in coastal marshes. Ecology. (DOI: 10.1002/ECY.3278)

Schaeffer, B., Neely, M., Spinosa, A., Serafy, E., Odermatt, D., Weathers, K., Barracchini, T., Bouffard, D., Carvalho, L., Comny, R., De Keukelaere, P., Hunter, P., Jamet, C., Joehnk, K., Johnston, J., Knudby, A., Minaudo, C., Pahlevan, N., Rose, K., Schalles, J.F. and Tzortziou, M. 2021. Integrating inland and coastal water quality data for actionable knowledge. Special Issue: Big Earth Data and Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments. Remote Sensing. 13; 23 July 2021(15):24 p. (DOI: doi.org/10

Schaeffer, B., Neely, M., Spinosa, A., Serafy, E., Odermatt, D., Weathers, K., Barracchini, T., Bouffard, D., Carvalho, L., Comny, R., De Keukelaere, P., Hunter, P., Jamet, C., Joehnk, K., Johnston, J., Knudby, A., Minaudo, C., Pahlevan, N., Rose, K., Schalles, J.F. and Tzortziou, M. 2021. Integrating inland and coastal water quality data for actionable knowledge. Special Issue: Big Earth Data and Remote Sensing in Coastal Environments. Remote Sensing. 13; 23 July 2021(15):24 p. (DOI: doi.org/10

Liu, W. and Pennings, S.C. 2019. Self-thinning and size-dependent flowering of the grass Spartina alterniflora across space and time. Functional Ecology. 33:1830-1841. (DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13384)

Peterson, R.N., Meile, C., Peterson, L., Carter, M. and Miklesh, D.M. 2019. Groundwater discharge dynamics into a salt marsh tidal river. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 218:324-333. (DOI: 10.1016/j.ecss.2019.01.007)

Damashek, J., Tolar, B., Liu, Q., Okotie-Oyekan, A., Wallsgrove, N.J., Popp, B.N. and Hollibaugh, J.T. 2018. Microbial oxidation of nitrogen supplied as selected organic nitrogen compounds in the South Atlantic Bight. Limnology and Oceanography. 64:982-995. (DOI: 10.1002/lno.11089)

Li, S., Hopkinson, C.S., Schubauer-Berigan, J.P. and Pennings, S.C. 2018. Climate drivers of Zizaniopsis miliacea biomass in a Georgia, U.S.A. tidal fresh marsh. Limnology and Oceanography. 63:2266-2276. (DOI: 10.1002/lno.10937)

Liu, Q., Tolar, B., Ross, M., Cheek, J., Sweeney, C., Wallsgrove, N.J., Popp, B.N. and Hollibaugh, J.T. 2018. Light and temperature control the seasonal distribution of Thaumarchaeota in the South Atlantic Bight. ISME Journal. 12:1473-1485. (DOI: 10.1038/s41396-018-0066-4)

Takagi, K., Hunter, K.S., Cai, W.-J. and Joye, S.B. 2017. Agents of change and temporal nutrient dynamics in the Altamaha River Watershed. Ecosphere. 8(1):33. (DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1519)

Wang, Y., Castelao, R. and Di Iorio, D. 2017. Salinity Variability and Water Exchange in Interconnected Estuaries. Estuaries and Coasts. (DOI: 10.1007/s12237-016-0195-9)

Whitby, H., Hollibaugh, J.T. and van den Berg, C.M. 2017. Chemical speciation of copper in a salt marsh estuary and bioavailability to Thaumarchaeota. Special Issue: Organic ligands - A key control on trace metal biogeochemistry in the ocean. Frontiers in Marine Sciences. 4. (DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00178)

Caffrey, J.M., Hollibaugh, J.T. and Mortazavi, B. 2016. Living oysters and their shells as sites of nitrification and denitrification. Marine Pollution Bulletin. (DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.08.038.)

Li, S. and Pennings, S.C. 2016. Disturbance in Georgia salt marshes: variation across space and time. Ecosphere. 7(10):e01487. (DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1487)

Tolar, B., Wallsgrove, N.J., Popp, B.N. and Hollibaugh, J.T. 2016. Oxidation of urea nitrogen in marine nitrifying communities dominated by Thaumarchaeota. Environmental Microbiology. (DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13457)

Conference Papers (Peer Reviewed)

Weston, N.B., Hollibaugh, J.T., Sandow, J.T. Jr. and Joye, S.B. 2003. Nutrients and dissolved organic matter in the Altamaha river and loading to the coastal zone. In: Hatcher, K.J. (editor). Proceedings of the 2003 Georgia Water Resources Conference. Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Conference Posters and Presentations

Craft, C.B., Stahl, M. and Widney, S. 2017. Presentation: Tidal freshwater forests: sentinels for climate change. 10th International Workshop on Nutrient Cycling and Retention in Natural and Constructed Wetlands, September 21-24, Trebon, Czech Republic.

Hollibaugh, J.T., Bratcher, A., Cheek, J., Liu, Q., Malagon, E., Popp, B.N., Ross, M., Schaefer, S.C., Sweeney, C., Tolar, B., van den Berg, C.M., Wallsgrove, N.J. and Whitby, H. 2017. Poster: LIGHT AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL THE SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THAUMARCHAEOTA IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC BIGHT. Fifth International Conference on Nitrification and Related Processes (ICoN5)23-27 July, 2017, 23-27 July, 2017, Vienna, Austria.

Peterson, R.N., Meile, C., Carter, M., Peterson, L., Waldorf, A. and Miklesh, D.M. 2017. Poster: Groundwater inputs to a back-barrier salt marsh tidal river. 2017 Chemical Oceanography Gordon Research Conference, July 2017, Holderness, NH.

Stahl, M., Widney, S. and Craft, C.B. 2017. Presentation: Tidal freshwater forests: a sentinel for climate change. SPEA Ph.D. Students' 17th Annual Conference, February 24, 2017, Bloomington, IN.

Widney, S., Stahl, M. and Craft, C.B. 2017. Presentation: Tidal forests: sentinels for climate change. Society of Wetland Scientists Annual Meeting, June 8, 2017, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Hollibaugh, J.T., Liu, Q., Ross, M., Cheek, J., Sweeney, C., Tolar, B., Hagan, P., Whitby, H., Bratcher, A., Malagon, E., Lynn-Bell, N., Shalack, J., Reddy, C.M. and Walker, J.T. 2016. Poster: Coupling between Sediment and Water Column Populations of Ammonia Oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in a Salt Marsh Estuary.

Alber, M., Schaefer, S.C., Pomeroy, L.R., Sheldon, J.E. and Joye, S.B. 2008. Presentation: Nitrogen inputs to the Altamaha River estuary (Georgia, USA): a historic analysis. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 3/08, Orlando, FL.

Alber, M., Schaefer, S.C., Pomeroy, L.R., Sheldon, J.E. and Joye, S.B. 2008. Presentation: Nitrogen inputs to the Altamaha River estuary (Georgia, USA): a historic analysis. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 3/08, Orlando, FL.

Seay, J.E., Bishop, T.D. and Tilburg, C.E. 2006. Poster: Spatial and temporal variations of Porcelain Crab larval abundance in a Georgia Estuary. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society Fall 2006 Meeting, 19 October - 21 October 2006, Savannah, Georgia.

Pennings, S.C. 2005. Presentation: Physical forcing and variation in salt marsh plant productivity at multiple time scales. Ecological Society of America 2005 Meeting - Ecology at multiple scales, August 7-12, 2005, Montreal, Canada.

Shalack, J. and Bishop, T.D. 2004. Poster: Spatial and temporal variability in recruitment of decapod megalopae in the Duplin River, Georgia. Semiannual Meeting of the Southeastern Estuarine Research Society. Invertebrates - Poster Session. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society, 15-17 April 2004, Ft. Pierce, FL.

Bishop, T.D. 2003. Presentation: Invasive biology and status of the green porcelain crab (Petrolisthes armatus) in Georgia waters. South Georgia Invasive Species Workshop, sponsored by The Nature Conservancy and Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve. October 2003, Brunswick, GA.

Bishop, T.D. and Hurley, D. 2003. Poster: The non-indigenous porcelain crab, Petrolisthes armatus: population trends in the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve. 2003 Estuarine Research Federation meeting. September 2003, Seattle, WA.

Bishop, T.D. and Hurley, D. 2003. Poster: The non-indigenous porcelain crab, Petrolisthes armatus: population trends in the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve. National Estuarine Research Reserve System / National Estuarine Research Reserve Association Annual Meeting. October 2003, Charleston, S.C.

Bishop, T.D., Hurley, D. and Alber, M. 2003. Presentation: An inventory of the macroinvertebrate fauna of oyster reefs in the Duplin River, Georgia, with emphasis on non-indigenous species occurrence. 2003 Estuarine Research Federation meeting. Sept. 14-18, 2003, Seattle, WA.

Ogburn, M.B., Bishop, T.D. and Alber, M. 2003. Poster: Population dynamics of two salt marsh snails in three Georgia estuaries. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society meeting. March 2003, Atlantic Beach, NC.

Bishop, T.D., Alber, M. and Wiegert, R.G. 2001. Poster: Macrofaunal population shifts and changing coastal salinity regimes. ERF 2001: An Estuarine Odyssey. Estuarine Research Federation, Nov. 4-8, 2001, St. Pete Beach, Florida.

Goodbody, G., Bishop, T.D. and Alber, M. 2001. Presentation: Distribution of snails in the Satilla and Altamaha River Estuaries. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society Meeting. Southeastern Estuarine Research Society, Mar 01, 2001, Charleston, South Carolina.

Pennings, S.C., Bertness, M.D., Donnelly, J.P., Ewanchuk, P.J., Silliman, B.R. and Callaway, R.M. 2001. Presentation: Impacts of global change on coastal salt marshes. Keynote address to the German Limnological Association, September 17-21, 2001, Kiel, Germany.

Data Sets by Research Topic

Core LTER Data Sets

Aquatic Invertebrate Ecology

Fall 2022 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Long-term Burrowing Crab Population Abundance Data from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Fall Marsh Monitoring Program

Long-term adult and juvenile periwinkle snail (Littoraria irrorata) density in mid-marsh and creekbank plots from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Fall Monitoring Program

Fall 2021 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Long-term Mollusc Population Abundance and Size Data from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Fall Marsh Monitoring Program

Fall 2020 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2018 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2019 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2017 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2016 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2015 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2014 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2013 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2012 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2012 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2011 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2011 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2011 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2010 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2010 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2010 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2009 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2009 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2009 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2008 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2008 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2008 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2007 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2007 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2007 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2006 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2006 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2006 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2005 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creek bank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-9

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2005 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2005 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2004 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creekbank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2004 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2004 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Spring 2004 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creekbank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Spring 2004 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Spring 2004 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Fall 2003 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creekbank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2003 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2003 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Spring 2003 crab population monitoring: mid-marsh and creekbank abundance based on crab hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Spring 2003 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Spring 2003 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2002 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2002 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Crab population monitoring: Fall 2002 mid-marsh and creekbank crab abundances based on hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Spring 2002 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Spring 2002 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Crab population monitoring: Spring 2002 mid-marsh and creekbank crab abundances based on hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Crab population monitoring: Fall 2001 mid-marsh and creekbank crab abundances based on hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2001 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2001 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Spring 2001 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Spring 2001 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Crab population monitoring: Spring 2001 mid-marsh and creekbank crab abundances based on hole counts at GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population abundance monitoring: Fall 2000 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc abundance based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Mollusc population size distribution monitoring: Fall 2000 mid-marsh and creekbank infaunal and epifaunal mollusc size distributions based on collections from GCE marsh, monitoring sites 1-10

Chemistry

Chemical speciation of copper in a salt marsh estuary near Sapelo Island, Georgia

Surface water DIC, total alkalinity, and pH for the September 2002 through December 2004 Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER oceanographic surveys

General Nutrient Chemistry

Long-term water quality monitoring in the Altamaha, Doboy and Sapelo sounds and the Duplin River near Sapelo Island, Georgia from November 2013 to December 2022

Dissolved Inorgainic Carbon concentration and Total Alkalinity from surface water samples collected in the GCE LTER domain near Sapelo Island, Georgia between May 2014 and December 2022.

Long-term water quality monitoring in the Altamaha River near Doctortown, Georgia from January 2013 to December 2022.

Long-term water quality monitoring in the Altamaha, Doboy and Sapelo sounds and the Duplin River near Sapelo Island, Georgia from May 2001 to August 2009

Long-term water quality monitoring on the Altamaha River and major tributaries from September 2000 through April 2009

Geology

Sediment elevation measurements for 10 GCE-LTER sampling sites from December 2001 to December 2020

Soil accretion at 10 GCE marsh sampling sites from December 2001 to May 2011

Soil accretion at 10 GCE marsh sampling sites from December 2011 to December 2016

Microbiology

Coupling between Sediment and Water Column Populations of Ammonia Oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in the Duplin River near Sapelo Island, Georgia

Seasonal Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Ammonia-Oxidation Rates in the South Atlantic Bight from April to November 2014

Multi-Disciplinary Study

Vegetation and invertebrate communities in 500 plots in the Duplin and Dean Creek watersheds: ground truth data for matching hyperspectral imagery

Physical Oceanography

Long-term Hydrographic Mooring Data from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Salinity Monitoring Program - Primary 30 Minute Observational Data

Long-term Hydrographic Mooring Data from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Salinity Monitoring Program - Daily Summarized Data

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2022 through 31-Dec-2022

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2021 through 31-Dec-2021

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2020 through 31-Dec-2020

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2019 through 31-Dec-2019

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2018 through 31-Dec-2018

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 07-Oct-2017 through 31-Dec-2017

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 07-Oct-2016 through 31-Dec-2016

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 07-Oct-2015 through 31-Dec-2015

Monthly vertical profiles of salinity, temperature, pressure, oxygen and photosynthetically-available radiation in Sapelo River, Doboy Sound, Duplin River and Altamaha River transect surveys from April 2008 to April 2015

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE11_Hydro (Altamaha River near Lewis Creek, Georgia) from 07-Oct-2014 through 31-Dec-2014

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2013 through 31-Dec-2013

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2012 through 31-Dec-2012

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2011 through 31-Dec-2011

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 31-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2010 through 06-Dec-2010

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2009 through 31-Dec-2009

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2008 through 31-Dec-2008

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 31-Dec-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 31-Dec-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 31-Dec-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 31-Dec-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 31-Dec-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 31-Dec-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 07-Nov-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2007 through 07-Nov-2007

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2006 through 31-Dec-2006

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2005 through 31-Dec-2005

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 05-May-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2004 through 31-Dec-2004

May 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

May 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

May 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

May 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

May 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

May 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

May 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

May 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

May 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

May 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

May 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

May 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

March 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

March 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

March 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

March 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

March 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

March 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

March 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

March 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

March 2004 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

March 2004 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE10_Hydro (Duplin River west of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 17-Jul-2003 through 31-Dec-2003

December 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

December 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

December 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

December 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

December 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

December 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

December 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

December 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

December 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

December 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

December 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

December 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2003 through 06-Nov-2003

September 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

September 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

September 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

September 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

September 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

September 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

September 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

September 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

September 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

September 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

September 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

September 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

June 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

June 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

June 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

June 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

June 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

June 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

June 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

June 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

June 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

June 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

June 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

June 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

March 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

March 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

March 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

March 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

March 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

March 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

March 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

March 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

March 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

March 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

March 2003 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

March 2003 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE6_Hydro (Doboy Sound south of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 25-Feb-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 01-Jan-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek) from 01-Jan-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE9_Hydro (Altamaha River near Rockdedundy Island, Georgia) from 25-Feb-2002 through 31-Dec-2002

December 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

December 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

December 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

December 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

December 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

December 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

December 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

December 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

December 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

December 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

September 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

September 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

September 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

September 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

September 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

September 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

September 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

September 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

September 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

September 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

June 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

June 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

June 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

June 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

June 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

June 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

March 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy River transect

March 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

March 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy River transect

March 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

March 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

March 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

March 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

March 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

March 2002 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

March 2002 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE1_Hydro (Sapelo River near Eulonia, Georgia) from 13-Sep-2001 through 31-Dec-2001

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE2_Hydro (Four Mile Island, Georgia) from 26-Oct-2001 through 31-Dec-2001

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE3_Hydro (Sapelo Sound north of Sapelo Island, Georgia) from 08-Aug-2001 through 31-Dec-2001

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE7_Hydro (Altamaha River near Carrs Island, Georgia) from 10-Aug-2001 through 31-Dec-2001

Continuous salinity, temperature and depth measurements from moored hydrographic data loggers deployed at GCE8_Hydro (Altamaha River near Aligator Creek) from 26-Oct-2001 through 31-Dec-2001

November 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

November 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

November 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

November 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Duplin River transect

November 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

November 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

November 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

November 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

October 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

October 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

October 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

October 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

October 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Inner Marsh transect

October 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

October 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

October 2001 bin-averaged CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

October 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

October 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

Spring 2001 CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

Spring 2001 CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

Spring 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Sapelo River transect

Spring 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Intracoastal Waterway transect

Spring 2001 CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

Spring 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Altamaha River transect

Spring 2001 CTD profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

Spring 2001 CTD, PAR, oxygen and chlorophyll profiles for the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems Doboy Sound transect

Plant Ecology

Monthly Vegetation and Invertebrate Population Monitoring near the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Flux Tower

Long-term Plant Biomass Monitoring Data from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Project on Sapelo Island, Georgia

Plant allometry at GCE sampling sites 1-10 in October between 2002 and 2020.

Fall 2017 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2017 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2017

Fall 2016 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2016

Fall 2016 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2015 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2015 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2015

Fall 2014 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2014 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2014

Fall 2013 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2013 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2013

Fall 2012 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2012 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2012

Fall 2011 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2011 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2010 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2010 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2009 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2009 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2008 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2008 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2007 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2007 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2006 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2006 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2005 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2005 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2004 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2004 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2003 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2003 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2002 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2002 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2001 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2001 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2000 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2000 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Population Ecology

Long-term Barnacle Settlement Near Creekbank Plots from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Fall Marsh Monitoring Program

Long-term Plant Biomass Monitoring Data from Altamaha River Plant Transition Sites near the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Project on Sapelo Island, Georgia

Fall 2022 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2022 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2022

Fall 2021 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2021 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2021

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2020

Fall 2020 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2020 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2019

GCE-LTER Altamaha River Plant Community Monitoring Survey in October 2018

Fall 2018 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2018 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2019 plant monitoring survey -- shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2019 plant monitoring survey -- biomass calculated from shoot height and flowering status of plants in permanent plots at GCE sampling sites 1-10

Fall 2012 mid-marsh and creekbank survey of adult and recruit Littoraria irrorata abundance at GCE LTER sampling sites 1-10

Pore-water Chemistry

Long-term soil salinity and organic content from the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Project on Sapelo Island, Georgia

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2022

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2021

Soil salinity and organic content at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2020

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2016

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2017

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2018

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2019

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2015

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2013

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2014

Soil salinity at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2012

Soil salinity and organic content at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2011

Soil salinity and water content at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2010

Soil salinity and organic content at GCE-LTER vegetation monitoring plots in October 2009

Terrestrial Insect Ecology

Fall 2023 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2022 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2021 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Long-term mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE-LTER sampling sites

Fall 2020 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Abundance of the planthopper Prokelisia at GCE LTER sampling sites in October, 2003-2019

Fall 2019 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2018 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2017 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2016 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2014 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2015 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2013 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2012 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2011 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2010 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2009 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2008 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2007 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2006 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2005 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2004 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2003 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2002 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2001 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at eight GCE LTER sampling sites

Fall 2000 grasshopper monitoring -- mid-marsh grasshopper abundance and species diversity at GCE LTER sampling sites 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6

Ancillary Data Sets

GCE Data Portal - GCE hydrographic monitoring data and plots

 
LTER
NSF

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants OCE-9982133, OCE-0620959, OCE-1237140 and OCE-1832178. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.